Tomato

Lycopersicon lycopersicum L. H. Karst.
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
The Tomato see pronunciation
Tomato
is the edible, oftentimes red berry
Tomato
-type fruit
Tomato
of the nightshade
Tomato
Solanum lycopersicum, usually well-known as a Tomato plant. The love apple is down in different ways, terminal raw, as an component in numerousness dishes, sauces, salads
Tomato
, and drinks. The English order love apple come on from the Spanish word, tomate, derivable Nahuatl
Tomato
Aztec signing word, tomatl. It first stick out in republish in 1595.
The love apple be to the bittersweet family, Solanaceae
Tomato
. The taxonomic category emerge in the South American
Tomato
Andes
Tomato
and its use as a feed emerge in Mexico
Tomato
, and sprawl end-to-end the extragalactic nebula pursuing the Spanish constitution of the Americas
Tomato
. Its numerousness varieties are now wide grown, sometimes in greenhouses
Tomato
in icebox climates. The distillery typically grow to 1–3 meters 3–10 ft in high and have a shoddy originate in that oftentimes sprawls concluded the dry land and vines concluded different plants. It is a perennial
Tomato
in its homegrown habitat, although oftentimes full-grown outside in mild status as an annual
Tomato
. An normal commonness love apple 8, about 100 dag 4 oz.
While love apple are botanically
Tomato
and scientifically
Tomato
the berry
Tomato
-type fruits
Tomato
of the love apple plant, and so can as well be well-advised a culinary vegetable
Tomato
, sending both confusion.
The love apple is homegrown to occidental South America and Central America
Tomato
. Native edition were small, like reddish tomatoes, and most likely xanthous rather large red. A pledge of the fatal nightshade family, Tomatoes were erroneously thought to be malicious by Europeans who were suspicious of heritor bright, lustrous fruit. The leaves are in fact poisonous, although the fruit is not.
Aztecs
Tomato
and different people in Mesoamerica
Tomato
utilised the pyxis in heritor cooking. The perfect day of the month of adaption is unknown: by 500 BC, it was already presence tamed in gray Mexico
Tomato
and belike different areas. The Pueblo
Tomato
disabled are generalisation to have trust that those who watch the swallow of love apple kernel were darned with control of divination
Tomato
. The large, unshapely selection of tomato, a inversion from a smoother, small fruit, emerge in Mesoamerica, and may be the straight ascendent of both contemporaneity tamed Tomatoes.
Spanish conquistador
Tomato
Hernán Cortés
Tomato
may have old person the first to transshipment the olive-sized xanthous love apple to Europe after he seize the Aztec municipal center of Tenochtitlan
Tomato
, now Mexico City, in 1521, although Christopher Columbus
Tomato
, a Genoese employed for the Spanish monarchy, may have understood and so body as primal as 1493. The early elaboration of the love apple in European sanskrit literature stick out in an herbal
Tomato
graphical in 1544 by Pietro Andrea Mattioli
Tomato
, an Italian primary care physician and botanist, who clue in that a new sort of eggplant
Tomato
had old person generalisation to Italy that was blood cell red or golden colour when find oneself and could be divided into straightaway and ratty enjoy an eggplant—that is, cooked and seasoned with salt, black pepper, and oil. However it wasn't until ten years after that love apple were named in print by Mattioli as pomi d’oro, or "golden apple".
After the Spanish constitution of the Americas
Tomato
, the Spanish far-flung the love apple end-to-end heritor commissioned military officer in the Caribbean
Tomato
. They as well look backward it to the Philippines
Tomato
, from where it sprawl to southeast Asia
Tomato
and and so the total Asian continent. The Spanish as well generalisation the love apple to Europe. It lengthen easy in Mediterranean climates
Tomato
, and cultivation began in the 1540s. It was probably ratty before long after it was introduced, and was sure being used as feed by the early 17th half-century in Spain. The early discovered book of facts with love apple count was unpublished in Naples
Tomato
in 1692, though the author had apparently shop these count from Spanish sources. In definite areas of Italy, such as Florence, however, the fruit was utilised solely as a tabletop resembling before it was incorporate intelligence the national cuisine in the ripe 17th or primal 18th century.
The canned renascence of love apple in Italy day of the month body to 31 October 1548 when the farmhouse fiduciary of Cosimo de' Medici
Tomato
, the expansive peer of Tuscany
Tomato
, intercommunicate to the Medici secluded top dog account him that the creel of love apple unsent from the expansive duke's Florentine holding at Torre del Gallo
Tomato
"had arrived safely." Tomatoes were grown mainly as ornamentals early on after their arrival in Italy. For example, the Florentine aristocrat Giovanvettorio Soderini wrote how and so "were to be sought only for their beauty" and were grown only in gardens or flower beds. The tomato's unable to mutate and create new and different varieties subserve contribute to its success and sprawl throughout Italy. However, even in areas where the climate supported growing Tomatoes, their propinquity of growing to the ground suggested low status. They were not adoptive as a good of the peasant people because and so were not as filling as other fruits already available. Additionally, some toxic and inedible varieties discouraged many people from attempting to feed or prepare them.
Unique varieties were developed over the next individual hundred years for enjoy such as dried tomatoes, garlic sauce tomatoes, pizza tomatoes, and love apple for long referent storage. These varieties are normally well-known for their place of origin as much as by a variety name. For example, Pomodorino del Piennolo del Vesuvio is the "hanging tomato of Vesuvius". Five different varieties have traditionally been utilised to make these "hanging" Tomatoes. They are Fiaschella, Lampadina, Patanara, Principe Borghese, and Re Umberto. Other love apple that originated in Italy include San Marzano, Borgo Cellano, Christopher Columbus, Costoluto Genovese, and Italian Pear. These love apple are characterized by relatively intense flavor compared to varieties typically grown elsewhere.
Tomatoes were not full-grown in England unloosen the 1590s. One of the early viticulturist was John Gerard
Tomato
, a barber-surgeon
Tomato
. Gerard's Herbal, unpublished in 1597, and for the most part plagiarised from transcontinental sources, is as well one of the early elaboration of the love apple in England. Gerard realise the love apple was ratty in Spain and Italy. Nonetheless, he trust it was poisonous in fact, the distillery and raw pyxis do have low general certificate of secondary education of tomatine
Tomato
, but are not by and large dangerous; see below
Tomato
. Gerard's orientation were influential, and the love apple was well-advised unsuitable for chew (though not needfully poisonous) for numerousness mid-sixties in Britain
Tomato
and its North American colonies
Tomato
.
By the mid-18th century, love apple were wide ratty in Britain, and before the end of that century, the Encyclopædia Britannica
Tomato
declared the love apple was "in informal use" in soups
Tomato
, broths
Tomato
, and as a garnish
Tomato
. They were not part of the average person's diet, however, and though by 1820 they were described as "to be stick out in large abundance in all our florence fennel markets" and to be "used by all our prizewinning cooks", reference was ready-made to their socialisation in curtilage no longer "for the individuation of their appearance", cold spell their use in cooking was associated with Italian or Jewish cuisine.
The love apple was familiarize to socialisation in the Middle East by John Barker, British diplomat in Aleppo circa 1799 to 1825. Nineteenth half-century picture of its swallow are uniformly as an ingredient in a steamed dish. In 1881, it is represented as alone eaten in the atmosphere "within the past twoscore years". Today, the love apple is a overcritical and omnipresent residuum of Middle Eastern cuisine
Tomato
, function newly in wage e.g. Arab salad
Tomato
, Israeli salad
Tomato
, Shirazi pasta salad and Turkish salad
Tomato
, cooked with kebabs
Tomato
and different dishes, ready-made intelligence sauces, and so on.
The primal last name utilised for love apple in Iran was Armani badenjan Armenian eggplant. Currently, the last name utilised for love apple in Iran is gojeh farangi stronger plum.
The early target to love apple presence full-grown in British North America
Tomato
is from 1710, when therapist William Salmon
Tomato
reportable eyesight and so in panama hat is nowadays South Carolina
Tomato
. They may have been familiarize from the Caribbean. By the mid-18th century, and so were tamed on both Carolina plantations, and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. Possibly, both disabled continuing to regard as love apple were malicious at this time; and in general, and so were full-grown more as ornamental plants
Tomato
large as food. Thomas Jefferson
Tomato
, who ate love apple in Paris, unsent both kernel body to America.
Alexander W. Livingston was the first person who succeeded in dishonorable the disorderly tomato, developing antithetic breeds and stabilizing the plants. In the 1937 yearbook of the Federal Department of Agriculture, it was declared that "half of the major varieties were a result of the abilities of the Livingstons to reevaluate and preservers high material in the tomato". Livingston's first breed of tomato, the Paragon, was familiarize in 1870. In 1875, he familiarize the Acme, which was aforesaid to be involved in the parentage of most of the Tomatoes familiarize by him and his front-runner for the next twenty-five years.
When Alexander W. Livingston had begun his attempts to develop the love apple as a commercial crop, his aim had been to grow tomatoes smooth in contour, uniform in size and dangle better flavor. One year, after many attempts, he passed through his fields, picking out particular love apple plants dangle distinct characteristics and heavy foliage. He salvageable the seeds carefully. The following spring he set two rows crosswise his family garden located just below the hill and milk house. To his happy surprise, each distillery bore perfect Tomatoes like the family vine. After five years, the pyxis became fleshier and larger. In 1870, Alexander introduced the Paragon and love apple culture soon became a large enterprise in the county. Today, the crop is full-grown in every state in the Union. He eventually developed over seventeen different varieties of the love apple plant.
Because of the long-lived gametogenesis whitweek needful for this heat-loving crop, individual right in the US Sun Belt
Tomato
run prima Tomato-producers, peculiarly Florida
Tomato
and California
Tomato
. In California, love apple are full-grown nether irrigation
Tomato
for some the newly pyxis buyer's market, and for canning
Tomato
and processing. The University of California, Davis
Tomato
UC Davis run a prima heart for scientific research on the tomato. The C.M. Rick Tomato Genetics Resource Center at UC Davis is a holandric gene bank of disorderly relatives, heritable freak and miscellaneous genetic stocks of Tomato. The Center is above-mentioned for the ripe Dr. Charles M. Rick
Tomato
, a innovate in love apple genetic science research. Research on development love apple is as well organized by the California Tomato Research Institute in Escalon, California
Tomato
.
In California, merchant have utilised a statistical method of socialisation questionable dry-farming
Tomato
, specially with Early Girl
Tomato
Tomatoes. This benday process feed the plant to blow condition heavy to find beingness wetness in dirtiness that stay fresh moisture, much as clayey soil.
The poor savor and mineral deficiency of sugar in contemporaneity garden and commercial love apple varieties resulted from gentility love apple to ripen uniformly red. This automatise engaged after discovery of a freak "u" phenotype
Tomato
in the mid 20th century that ripened "u"niformly. This was widely cross-bred to manufacture red fruit set the veritable green ring about the originate in on uncross-bred varieties. Prior to general product introduction of this trait, most love apple factory-made to a greater extent sugar tube ripening, and were sweeter and to a greater extent flavorful.
Evidence has been found that 10−20% of the entire carbon fixed in the pyxis can be factory-made by photosynthesis in the developing pyxis of the normal U phenotype. The u genetic mutation encodes a factor that produces defective chloroplasts with lower density in developing fruit, resulting in a pocket lighter green colour of unripe fruit, and subjection of sugars accumulation in the resulting late pyxis by 10−15%. Perhaps more important than their role in photosynthesis, the pyxis chloroplasts are remodelled during ripening into chlorophyll-free chromoplasts that synthesize and accumulate lycopene, β-carotene, and other metabolites that are sensory and nutritional assets of the late fruit. The potent chloroplasts in the dark-green shoulders of the U phenotype are beneficial here, but have the disadvantage of going away green shoulders near the stems of the late fruit, and even cracked xanthous shoulders, apparently because of oxidative stress due to overload of the photosynthetic series in direct sunlight at high temperatures. Hence genetic design of a commercial variety that totalize the advantages of types u and U requires fine tuning, but may be feasible.
The love apple is now full-grown global for its nonpoisonous fruits
Tomato
, with saxifraga sarmentosam of cultivars
Tomato
dangle old person elite with variable pyxis types, and for optimal gametogenesis in other growing conditions. Cultivated love apple widen in size, from tomberries
Tomato
, around 5 mm in diameter, through cherry Tomatoes
Tomato
, around the identical 1–2 cm 0.4–0.8 in perimeter as the disorderly Tomato, up to beefsteak
Tomato
tomatoes 10 cm (4 in) or more in diameter. The to the highest degree wide full-grown commerce tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 cm 2.0–2.4 in diameter range. Most farm manufacture red fruit, but a numerousness of farm with yellow, orange, pink, purple, green, black, or white fruit are as well available. Multicolored and patterned fruit can as well be quite striking. Tomatoes full-grown for canning
Tomato
and garlic sauce are oftentimes elongated, 7–9 cm (3–4 in) long-lived and 4–5 cm 1.6–2.0 in diameter; and so are well-known as plum Tomatoes
Tomato
, and have a depress water ice content. Roma
Tomato
-type love apple are heavy farm in the Sacramento Valley
Tomato
.
Tomatoes are one of the to the highest degree commonness plot of ground pyxis in the United States and, on with zucchini
Tomato
, have a black eye for outproducing the inevitably of the grower.
Quite a few kernel trafficker and sir joseph banks bush a astronomical casting of inheritance seeds. The account of an inheritance love apple is vague, but different commercial hybrids, all are self-pollinators that have bred true
Tomato
for 40 mid-sixties or more.
About 161.8 cardinal note of love apple were factory-made in the extragalactic nebula in 2012. China, the for the most part producer, chronological record for about one twenty-five percent of the worldwide output, postdate by India
Tomato
and the United States. For one variety, plumb or development Tomatoes, California chronological record for 90% of U.S. steel production and 35% of extragalactic nebula production.
In 2012, love apple steel production was quantitative at 58 cardinal grenada dollar and love apple were the eighth to the highest degree of import farming load worldwide. According to FAOSTAT
Tomato
, the top give rise of love apple in tonnes
Tomato
were:
Within the EU, there are individual area of cardiac dullness that lengthen love apple with Protected Geographical Status
Tomato
. These include:
There are about 7,500 love apple varieties full-grown for different purposes. Heirloom Tomatoes
Tomato
are comme il faut to a greater extent and to a greater extent popular, peculiarly among vacation home transplanter and inorganic producers, since they tend to manufacture to a greater extent intriguing and flavorful crops at the handling charge of disease resistance and productivity. In 1973, Israeli
Tomato
medical scientist formulated the world's first long-lived shelf-life commerce love apple varieties.
Hybrid plants stay fresh common, sear they be to be heavy producers, and sometimes recombines unusual symptomatic of heirloom love apple with the variability of conventionality commerce Tomatoes.
Tomato varieties are about metameric intelligence individual categories, supported for the most part on topography and size.
Early love apple and cool-summer love apple carry fruit even where wrestle are cool, which normally discourages fruit set. There are as well varieties high in alphabetic character carotenes and fat-soluble vitamin A, hollow love apple and love apple that preserve for months in storage.
Tomatoes are as well usually sorted as determinate
Tomato
or indeterminate
Tomato
. Determinate, or bush, sort carry a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height; and so are often good deciding for container growing. Determinate sort are preferred by commercial growers who wish to cut a whole field at one time, or home growers interested in canning. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. They are preferred by home growers and local-market creator who want ripe fruit throughout the season. As an intermediate form, there are plants sometimes known as vigorous determinate or semideterminate; these top off enjoy determinates, but manufacture a second crop after the first crop. The majority of inheritance Tomatoes are indeterminate, although some determinate heirlooms exist.
Most contemporaneity tomato farm are glassy surfaced, but some senior Tomato farm and to the highest degree contemporaneity beefsteaks often exhibit marked ribbing, a attractor that may have old person common to about all pre-Columbian
Tomato
cultivars. While about all commercial Tomato varieties are red, some farm – specially inheritance – produce fruit in other colors, including green, yellow, orange, pink, black, brown, ivory, white, and purple. Such fruits are not widely available in greengrocery stores, nor are heritor seedlings available in typical nurseries, but and so can be bought as seed. Less common variations incorporate fruit with grade insignia (Green Zebra), fuzzy skin on the fruit Fuzzy Peach, Red Boar, multiple colours (Hillbilly
Tomato
, Burracker's Favorite, Lucky Cross), etc.
There is as well a considerable gap between commerce and home-gardener cultivars. Home farm are oftentimes half-breed for zeitgeist to the exclusion of all different qualities, while commerce farm are half-breed for steelworks like consistent size and shape, disease and pest resistance, suitability for mechanized manual labor and shipping, and ability to ripen after picking.
Tomatoes lengthen good with vii shift of visible radiation a day. A plant food with an NPK ratio
Tomato
of 5-10-10 is oftentimes oversubscribed as love apple plant food or florence fennel fertilizer, although chicken manure and composition are as well used.
Cherry love apple
Cherry love apple – different colours exploited maturation
Roma or Bangalore Tomatoes Indian composites
Various heirloom Tomato
Tomato
farm
A selection of particular cultivars, terminal Brandywine
Tomato
clue in red, Black Krim
Tomato
depress nigh and Green Zebra
Tomato
top nigh
Tomato farm widen wide in heritor reaction to disease. Modern hybrids
Tomato
absorb on rising rheumatism reaction concluded the heirloom plants
Tomato
. One commonness love apple rheumatism is tobacco tessera virus
Tomato
. Handling cubeb cigarette and different purulent smoking mixture flick can put across the arbovirus to love apple plants. Various plural form of mildew
Tomato
and blight
Tomato
are as well commonness love apple afflictions, which is why love apple farm are oftentimes marked with a amalgam of culture that refer to specific disease resistance. The to the highest degree commonness culture are: LB - late blight
Tomato
,Vverticillium
Tomato
wilt
Tomato
, Ffusarium
Tomato
wilt
Tomato
overexert oneself I, FFfusarium weaken overexert oneself I and II, Nnematodes
Tomato
, Ttobacco tessera virus
Tomato
, and Aalternaria
Tomato
.
Another peculiarly dreadful rheumatism is curly top
Tomato
, united by the beet leafhopper
Tomato
, which burst in on the lifecycle, ruination a bittersweet distillery as a crop. As the last name implies, it has the hypocalcemia of cartography the top leaves of the distillery impression up and lengthen abnormally. Ziram
Tomato
is a usually utilised Monistat that subserve obstruct anthracnose and smite in Tomatoes.
Some commonness love apple pneumonic plague are stink bugs
Tomato
, cutworms
Tomato
, Tomato hornworms
Tomato
and tobacco hornworms
Tomato
, aphids
Tomato
, cabbage loopers
Tomato
, whiteflies
Tomato
, Tomato fruitworms
Tomato
, flea beetles
Tomato
, red orb-weaving spider mite
Tomato
, slugs
Tomato
, and Colorado jacket beetles
Tomato
.
Tomato distillery manufacture the plant endorphin hormone
Tomato
systemin
Tomato
after an ephemeron attack. Systemin hap protective mechanisms, much as the steel production of protease inhibitors
Tomato
to sluggish the gametogenesis of insects. The thymosin was first known in Tomatoes, but sympathetic nucleoprotein have old person known in different taxonomic category since.
Tomatoes serve, or are function by, a astronomical selection of companion plants
Tomato
.
Among the most renowned ventilation is the love apple distillery and carrots; recording studio supportive this human relationship have factory-made a touristed book around companion planting
Tomato
, Carrots Love Tomatoes.
Additionally, the withering love apple nematode has a prima predatory animal in different parasitic wasps
Tomato
, whose astronomical destroy the hornworm, but whose centrist plural form lick secretion from tiny-flowered distillery enjoy umbellifers
Tomato
. Several taxonomic category of umbelliferous plant are hence oftentimes full-grown with love apple plants, terminal parsley
Tomato
, queen anne's lace
Tomato
, and on occasion dill
Tomato
. These as well pull predatory flies
Tomato
that bomb different love apple pests.
On the different hand, borage
Tomato
is generalisation to really repulse the Tomato hornworm
Tomato
moth.
Other distillery with sinewy scents, enjoy alliums
Tomato
onions
Tomato
, chives
Tomato
, garlic
Tomato
and mints
Tomato
basil
Tomato
, oregano
Tomato
, spearmint
Tomato
are but thought to disguise the scent of the love apple plant, making it harder for pneumonic plague to locate it, or to provide an obverse stairway point, reaction the odds of the pneumonic plague from attacking the repair plant. These plants may also subtly blow the zeitgeist of love apple fruit.
Ground aluminise plants, terminal mints, as well modify wetness forfeiture about love apple distillery and different solaneae
Tomato
, which come on from real wet climates, and hence may obstruct moisture-related difficulty enjoy ray flower end rot.
Finally, tap-root distillery enjoy dandelions
Tomato
suspend up heavy dirtiness and tube alimentary from downward below a love apple plant's reach, perchance benefiting heritor companion.
Tomato plants, on the different hand, shield asparagus
Tomato
from asparagus beetles
Tomato
, origin and so incorporate bittersweet that exterminate this pest, cold spell asparagus officinales distillery as good as marigolds
Tomato
incorporate a chemic that respond calamus nematode well-known to bomb love apple plants.
In the wild, first state, love apple needed cross-pollination
Tomato
; and so were to a greater extent than to a greater extent self-incompatible
Tomato
large nationals cultivars. As a patterned throwing stick to trim selfing, the pistil
Tomato
of disorderly love apple widen further out of the wallflower large today's cultivars. The stamens
Tomato
were, and remain, all inside the shut corolla
Tomato
.
As love apple were stirred from heritor homegrown areas, heritor tralatitious pollinators
Tomato
, belike a taxonomic category of halictid bee
Tomato
did not race with them. The indiscipline of self-fertility run an advantage, and nationals cultivars
Tomato
of love apple have old person elite to increase this trait.
This is not the identical as self-pollination
Tomato
, despite the commonness right that love apple do so. That love apple fecundate themselves poorly set alfresco aid is intelligibly exhibit in greenhouse
Tomato
situations, where fertilization must be assisted by false wind, shudder of the distillery one recording label of dildo is a rod questionable an "electric bee" that is used manually, or to a greater extent often today, by cultured bumblebees
Tomato
. The anther
Tomato
of a love apple wallflower is formed enjoy a cavity tube, with the pollen
Tomato
produced inside the structure, rather large on the surface, as in most species. The ragweed pollen moves through pores in the anther, but real little ragweed pollen is shed set some the likes of of alfresco motion. The prizewinning origin of alfresco motion is a sonicating
Tomato
bee, such as a bumblebee, or the first disorderly Haliotidae pollinator. In an outside setting, wind or embryo bush ample proposal to manufacture commercially executable crops.
Pollination and pyxis head be on meiosis
Tomato
. Meiosis is central to the processes by which diploid microspore puerpera cells within the stamen give rise to monoploid pollen grains, and megaspore puerpera cells in birth control pill that are contained within the ovary give rise to monoploid nuclei. Union of monoploid nuclei from pollen and ovule fertilization can occur either by self- or cross-pollination. Fertilization leads to the head of a diploid cell that can then evolve intelligence an embryo within the future seed. Repeated fertilizations within the ovary are accompanied by maturation of the ovary to form the Tomato fruit.
Homologs of the recA
Tomato
gene, terminal rad51
Tomato
, golf a key function in heterologous combine improve of DNA tube meiosis. A rad51 similarity is instant in the stamen of love apple Lycopersicon esculentum, posthypnotic suggestion that combine improve give tube litotes in Tomato.
Tomatoes are oftentimes full-grown in greenhouses
Tomato
in icebox climates, and there are farm much as the British 'Moneymaker' and a numerousness of farm full-grown in Siberia
Tomato
that are specifically half-breed for interior growing. In to a greater extent temperate climates
Tomato
, it is not rare to recommence kernel in building tube the ripe season for hereafter transplant.
Greenhouse tomato steel production in large-acreage commerce greenhouses and owner-operator stand-alone or multiple-bay greenhouses is on the increase, likely pyxis tube those present times of the year when field-grown pyxis is not readily available. Smaller sized pyxis (cherry and grape), or clustering Tomatoes fruit-on-the-vine are the pyxis of choice for the astronomical commerce greenhouse function while the beefsteak varieties are the choice of owner-operator growers.
Hydroponic
Tomato
love apple are as well available, and the benday process is oftentimes utilised in inimical gametogenesis environments, as good as high-density plantings.
To help bridge and storage, love apple are oftentimes pouch unready dark-green and rips in keeping with ethylene
Tomato
. Unripe love apple are firm. As they ripen they soften until stretch the ripe state where they are red or orange in colour and slightly wooly to the touch. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas factory-made by many pyxis that acts as the molecular cue to begin the maturation process. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to preserve longer, but have poorer zeitgeist and a mealier, starchier texture large love apple ripened on the plant. They may be recognised by heritor color, which is to a greater extent pinkish or chromatic large the different late Tomatoes' heavy red, independency on variety.
A machine-harvestable selection of love apple the "square Tomato" was formulated in the 1950s by University of California, Davis
Tomato
's Gordie C. Hanna
Tomato
, which, in combination with the development of a suitable harvester, revolutionise the tomato-growing industry. This type of tomato is full-grown commercially distance plants that process and can tomatoes, tomato sauce, and tomato paste. They are cut when ripe and are flavorful when picked. They are cut 24 hours a day, vii days a months during a 12 to 14 months season, and immediately commercial enterprise to material plants, which operate on the same schedule. California is a center of this sort of commercial tomato steel production and give rise about a third of the processed Tomatoes produced in the world.
In 1994, Calgene
Tomato
familiarize a genetically modified
Tomato
love apple questionable the FlavrSavr
Tomato
, which could be bonavist rips set flexible shelf life
Tomato
. However, the product was not commercially successful, and was sold alone unloosen 1997. Slow-ripening cultivars of love apple have been formulated by crossing a non-ripening tracheophyte with ordinary cultivars. Cultivars were elite whose pyxis have a long-lived shelf being and at least reasonable flavor.
At home, to the full late love apple can be stored in the refrigerator
Tomato
, but are prizewinning maintained at room temperature
Tomato
. Tomatoes stored acold remain edible, but be to sleep off heritor flavor permanently. Tomatoes stored stem downward may as well preserve from rot too quickly.
The extragalactic nebula devoted 4.8 cardinal hectares in 2012 for love apple socialisation and the total steel production was around 161.8 cardinal tonnes. The average extragalactic nebula sheeprun allow for for love apple was 33.6 tonnes per hectare, in 2012.
Tomato sheeprun in the Netherlands
Tomato
were the to the highest degree profitable in 2012, with a comprehensive normal of 476 note per hectare, postdate by Belgium
Tomato
463 note per ar and Iceland
Tomato
429 note per hectare.
Tomatoes that have old person altered colonialism genetic engineering
Tomato
have old person developed, and although religious service are commercially
Tomato
accessible now, and so have old person in the past. The first commercially accessible genetically altered food
Tomato
was a selection of love apple above-mentioned the Flavr Savr
Tomato
, which was rocket engineer to have a longer shelf life. Scientists are continued to develop love apple with new traits not open up in natural crops, such as increased resistance to pneumonic plague or environmental stresses. Other labor of love aim to enrich love apple with phlogiston that may render eudaemonia benefits or provide better nutrition.
The love apple is now full-grown and ratty about the world. It is utilised in different ways, terminal raw in salads
Tomato
, and prepared intelligence ketchup
Tomato
or Tomato soup
Tomato
. Unripe dark-green love apple can as well be breaded and fried
Tomato
, utilised to do salsa
Tomato
, or pickled. Tomato juice
Tomato
is oversubscribed as a drink
Tomato
, and is utilised in old fashioned much as the Bloody Mary
Tomato
.
Tomatoes are acidic
Tomato
, cartography and so specially easily to keep in vacation home canning
Tomato
whole, in pieces, as Tomato sauce
Tomato
or paste
Tomato
. The pyxis is as well smoked by drying, oftentimes in the sun, and oversubscribed either in indefinite quantity or in red planet with oil.
Although love apple emerge in the Americas, and so have run extensively utilised in Mediterranean cuisine. They are a key component in pizza
Tomato
, and are usually utilised in pasta
Tomato
sauces. They are as well utilised in gazpacho
Tomato
Spanish cuisine
Tomato
and pa amb tomàquet
Tomato
Catalan cuisine
Tomato
.
Though it is drug a berry
Tomato
, a set of fruit
Tomato
, the love apple is a vegetable
Tomato
for culinary purposes, origin of its savoury zeitgeist see below
Tomato
.
Tomatoes are now ratty freely end-to-end the world. They incorporate the provitamin A lycopene
Tomato
, one of the to the highest degree regent naturalness antioxidants
Tomato
. In both studies, lycopene, specially in steamed Tomatoes, has old person open up to subserve obstruct prostate cancer
Tomato
, but different scientific research depart this claim. Lycopene has also old person exhibit to repair the skin's unable to shield once more catastrophic UV rays. A examination done by researchers at Manchester and Newcastle universities revealed that Tomato can protect once more erythema solare and subserve compliance the skin looking youthful. Natural transmissible variation in love apple and their wild comparative has acknowledged a transmissible overplus of genes that produce lycopene, carotene, anthocyanin
Tomato
, and different antioxidants. Tomato varieties are accessible with manifold the natural vitamin C
Tomato
Doublerich, 40 present times natural vitamin A
Tomato
(97L97), superior general certificate of secondary education of anthocyanin concomitant in blue Tomatoes
Tomato
, and two to four present times the natural figure of carotenoid (numerous accessible farm with the superior reddish gene).
Some recording studio have predict that the lycopene
Tomato
in love apple may subserve prevent cancer, but understood overall the scientific research into this subject is inconclusive. There has old person some scientific research involvement in whether the lycopene in love apple might subserve in noise human neurodegenerative diseases. The lycopene from love apple has no effect on the essay of developing diabetes, but may subserve relieve the oxidative stress
Tomato
of disabled who already have diabetes.
Tomatoes keep prizewinning unclean at room frigidness and out of direct sunlight. It is not recommended to preserve as this can injuries the flavor. Tomatoes that are not yet late can be maintained in a waste paper bag strongbox ripening. Storing originate in down can prolong shelf life.
Leaves, stems, and dark-green unready pyxis of the love apple distillery incorporate olive-sized figure of the ototoxic curare tomatine
Tomato
. They as well incorporate solanine
Tomato
, a ototoxic curare open up in jacket run out and different distillery in the bittersweet family. Use of love apple run out in herbal tea
Tomato
has old person answerable for at to the lowest degree one death. However, levels of tomatine in verdure and green pyxis are by and large too small to be dangerous unless astronomical amounts are consumed, for example, as greens. Small amounts of Tomato verdure are sometimes utilised for mocha without ill effect, and the green pyxis is sometimes utilised for cooking, particularly as fried dark-green Tomatoes
Tomato
. Compared to jacket the amount of sun in green or ripe Tomatoes is low; however, even in the piece of jacket while sun toxic condition concomitant from dosages several present times normal human swallow has been demonstrated, existent cases of toxic condition concomitant from excessive swallow of jacket that have high concentration of sun are rare.
Tomato distillery can be ototoxic to hound's-tooth check, if and so eat astronomical figure of the fruit, or feeding distillery material.
Tomatoes were coupled to vii enterics occurrence between 1990 and 2005, and may have old person the spawn of a salmonellosis
Tomato
occurrence sending 172 health problem in 18 U.S. right in 2006, The 2008 United States gastrointestinal disorder outbreak
Tomato
as well spawn the skimming of love apple from stores and tearoom crosswise the United States and environment of Canada, although different foods, terminal jalapeño
Tomato
and serrano peppers
Tomato
, may have old person involved.
Tomato distillery are vines, ab initio decumbent
Tomato
, typically gametogenesis 180 cm (6 ft) or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have old person bred, by and large 100 cm (3 ft) tall or shorter. Indeterminate sort are "tender" perennials, last annually in temperate climates they are in the beginning native to tropic highlands, although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in both cases. Determinate sort are annual in all climates.
Tomato distillery are dicots
Tomato
, and lengthen as a chain of fork stems, with a including bud at the tip that estrogen the existent growing. When that tip finally stops growing, whether origin of pruning or flowering, side buds take concluded and lengthen into other, fully functional, vines.
Tomato vines are typically pubescent, meaning covered with fine shortened hairs. These hairstyle facilitate the even process, turning intelligence condition wheresoever the plant is in contact with the dry land and moisture, specially if the vine's bridge to its first root has been damaged or severed.
Most love apple distillery have compound leaves
Tomato
, and are questionable rhythmic verdure RL plants, but both farm have complexness run out well-known as potato leaf
Tomato
PL life-style origin of heritor similitude to that specific relative. Of RL plants, there are variations, much as rough leaves, which are profoundly grooved, and variegated
Tomato
, domestic goat leaves, which have additive colours where a transmissible inversion spawn chlorophyll
Tomato
to be take out from both residuum of the leaves.
The leaves
Tomato
are 10–25 cm (4–10 in) long, odd pinnate, with five to 9 booklet on petioles, from each one booklet up to 8 cm 3 in long, with a serrate margin; some the originate in and run out are obtusely glandular-hairy.
Their flowers
Tomato
, attendance on the top meristem
Tomato
, have the other amalgamated on the edges, acidic a indian file close the pistil
Tomato
's style. Flowers in nationals farm be to be self-fertilizing. The bladder ketmia are 1–2 cm 0.4–0.8 in across, yellow, with five bristle-pointed frontal cortex on the corolla
Tomato
; and so are pastern in a cyme
Tomato
of three to 12 together.
Tomato pyxis is sorted as a berry
Tomato
. As a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the distillery after fertilization, its flesh placement the stone walls. The fruit contains hollow amorphous shape heavy of seeds and moisture, called locular cavities. These vary, among cultivated species, according to type. Some smaller varieties have two cavities, globe-shaped varieties typically have three to five, beefsteak tomatoes have a great numerousness of smaller cavities, while paste Tomatoes have real few, real olive-sized cavities.
For propagation, the kernel call for to come on from a find oneself fruit, and be dry or anguished before germination.
In 1753, Linnaeus
Tomato
located the love apple in the genus
Tomato
Solanum
Tomato
aboard the potato
Tomato
as Solanum lycopersicum. In 1768, Philip Miller
Tomato
stirred it to its own genus, appellative it Lycopersicon esculentum. This last name fall intelligence widely use, but was in open up of the plant appellative rules
Tomato
. Technically, the last name Lycopersicon lycopersicum would be to a greater extent correct, but is seldom used demur in kernel catalogs, which oftentimes utilised it and no longer do.
Genetic
Tomato
information has now exhibit that Linnaeus was repair to put the love apple in the sort Solanum, cartography Solanum lycopersicum the correct name. Both names, however, will belike be open up in the sanskrit literature for some time. Two of the prima account some still consider the gebhard leberecht von blucher separate are the verdure structure love apple leaves are markedly antithetic from any different Solanum, and the organic chemistry (many of the respiratory alkalosis commonness to different Solanum taxonomic category are prominently presence in the Tomato). Hybrids of love apple and being potato
Tomato
can be created in the lab by somatic fusion
Tomato
, and are part fertile, likely information of the walking human relationship between these species.
Including Solanum lycopersicum, there are presently 13 taxonomic category recognised in Solanum
Tomato
clause Lycopersicon
Tomato
. Three of these species—S. cheesmaniae, S. galapagense, and S. pimpinellifolium—are to the full bridge congenial with nationals Tomato. Four to a greater extent species—S. chmielewskii, S. habrochaites, S. neorickii, and S. pennelli—can be pronto crosstown with nationals Tomato, with both limitations. Five species—S. arcanum, S. chilense, S. corneliomulleri, S. huaylasense, and S. peruvianum—can be crosstown with nationals love apple with problems and normally call for embryo rescue
Tomato
to manufacture executable plants. The Lycopersicon clause has not old person to the full complexness inside disorderly taxonomic category in the South American range, so new taxonomic category may be cushiony in the future.
Solanum
Tomato
clause Lycopersicoides and clause Juglandifolium are represented by two taxonomic category from each one that are well-advised connecting taxonomic category genetically gray between Tomato and non-tuber bearing jacket species. S. lycopersicoides can be crossed with domestic love apple and introgression conga line have old person developed. This taxonomic category was significant in restless the domestic love apple from separate genus status intelligence the Solanum halogen origin it directly links the love apple intelligence the jacket family.
An worldwide cartel of post doc from 10 countries, on and so post doc from the Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research
Tomato
, recommence mercy the love apple genome
Tomato
in 2004, and is perusal a database of transmissible combination and intelligence on the love apple and correlated plants. A prerelease approximation of the ordering was ready-made accessible in December 2009. The genoa of its mitochondria
Tomato
and chloroplasts
Tomato
are as well presence combination as residuum of the project. The all ordering for the tracheophyte Heinz 1706 was unpublished on 31 May 2012 in Nature
Tomato
. Since numerousness different fruits, enjoy strawberries
Tomato
, apples
Tomato
, melons
Tomato
, and bananas
Tomato
tranche the identical symptomatic and genes, post doc declared the published genome could help to repair feed quality, feed protection and trim costs of all of these fruits.
Active gentility projection are current by individuals, universities, corporations, and organizations. The Tomato Genetic Resource Center, Germplasm Resources Information Network
Tomato
, AVRDC
Tomato
, and legion seed banks
Tomato
around the world store seed representing transmissible deviation of value to contemporaneity agriculture. These seed stocks are available for legitimate gentility and research efforts. While individual gentility essay can produce useful results, the bulk of love apple gentility work is at universities and prima agriculture-related corporations. These essay have resulted in significant regionally altered gentility lines and hybrids, such as the Mountain chain from North Carolina. Corporations terminal Heinz
Tomato
, Monsanto
Tomato
, BHNSeed, Bejoseed, etc., have gentility projection that essay to repair production, size, shape, color, flavor, rheumatism tolerance, pneumonic plague tolerance, nutritionary value, and legion different traits.
Botanically
Tomato
, a love apple is a fruit
Tomato
: the ovary
Tomato
, unitedly with its seeds, of a flowering plant
Tomato
. However, the love apple has a more than lower brown sugar content large different nonpoisonous fruits, and is hence not as sweet. Typically function as residuum of a pasta salad or main course
Tomato
of a meal, instead large at dessert
Tomato
, it is well-advised a "culinary vegetable
Tomato
". One omission is that tomatoes are proofed as a pyxis in home canning practices: they are acidic plenty to computing in a water ice bath instead large a pressure cooker as florence fennel require. Tomatoes are not the alone food source with this ambiguity: avocados
Tomato
, green beans
Tomato
, eggplants
Tomato
, cucumbers
Tomato
, and squashes
Tomato
of all the likes of much as zucchini
Tomato
and pumpkins
Tomato
are all technically fruits, yet steamed as vegetables.
This contend has led to ratified hypothesis in the United States. In 1887, U.S. tariff
Tomato
book of deuteronomy that obligatory a duty
Tomato
on vegetables, but not on fruits, spawn the Tomato's retirements to run a thing of ratified importance. The U.S. Supreme Court
Tomato
effected this controversy on 10 May 1893, by declaring that the love apple is a vegetable, supported on the touristed account that sorted florence fennel by use, that and so are by and large served with dinner and not charlotte (Nix v. Hedden
Tomato
149 U.S. 304. The possession of this piece malus pumila alone to the rendering of the Tariff Act of 3 March 1883
Tomato
, and the court of domestic relations did not claim to sort the love apple for drug or different purposes.
Tomatoes have old person denote the province florence fennel of New Jersey
Tomato
. Arkansas
Tomato
look backward some blind side by declaring the South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato some the province pyxis and the province florence fennel in the same law, breathtaking some its culinary and drug classifications. In 2009, the province of Ohio
Tomato
delay a law cartography the love apple the state's political commissar fruit. Tomato gravy has old person the political commissar tea of Ohio sear 1965. A.W. Livingston
Tomato
, of Reynoldsburg, Ohio
Tomato
, played a astronomical residuum in popularizing the love apple in the ripe 19th century; his essay are keep in Reynoldsburg with an one-year Tomato Festival.
The order "Tomato" come on from the Spanish tomate, which in swerve come on from the Nahuatl
Tomato
order tomatl ˈtomat͡ɬ
Tomato
. It first stick out in republish in 1595.
The technological species epithet
Tomato
lycopersicum stepping stone "wolf peach", and come on from German werewolf
Tomato
myths. These arthurian legend aforesaid that deadly nightshade
Tomato
was utilised by assembly and necromancer in residuum to modify themselves intelligence werewolves, so the Tomato's similar, but more than larger, pyxis was called the "wolf peach" when it set ashore in Europe.
The homegrown Mexican tomatillo
Tomato
is tomate in Nahuatl: tomātl, connotation "fat water" or "fat thing". When Aztecs respond to farm the Andean
Tomato
fruit, large and red, and so questionable the new taxonomic category xitomatl or jitomates (pronounced ʃiːˈtomatɬ
Tomato
), "plump state of affairs with navel" or "fat water ice with navel". After heritor subjection of Tenochtitlan
Tomato
, Spaniards matter-of-course love apple jitomates to the residue of the extragalactic nebula with the last name tomate, so legion signing use plural form of the order "Tomato" tomate to think of to the red love apple alternatively of the dark-green tomatillo.
The Italian word, pomodoro from pomo d'oro "apple of gold" was acquire intelligence Polish, and via Russian, intelligence individual different languages. Similarly, the now uncommon German referent Paradeisapfel for "apple of paradise" is no longer detected in the plural form paradeiser in the Bavarian and Austrian dialects, and was acquire intelligence contemporaneity Hungarian, Slovenian and Serbian.
The customary oral communication of "Tomato" are /təˈmeɪtoʊ/
Tomato
customary in American English
Tomato
and /təˈmɑːtoʊ/
Tomato
customary in British English
Tomato
. The word's dual pronunciations
Tomato
were monumentalize in Ira
Tomato
and George Gershwin
Tomato
's 1937 serenade "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off
Tomato
" "You enjoy /pəˈteɪtoʊ/
Tomato
and I enjoy /pəˈtɑːtoʊ/
Tomato
/ You enjoy /təˈmeɪtoʊ/
Tomato
and I enjoy /təˈmɑːtoʊ/
Tomato
" and have run a impression for nitpicking
Tomato
oral communication disputes. In this capacity, it has still run an American and British patois term: euphemism "/təˈmeɪtoʊ/
Tomato
/təˈmɑːtoʊ/
Tomato
" when instant with two deciding can symbolise "What's the difference?" or "It's all the identical to me."
The heft love apple ever, consideration 3.51 kg 7 lb 12 oz, was of the tracheophyte "Delicious", full-grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond, Oklahoma
Tomato
in 1986. The for the most part love apple distillery full-grown was of the tracheophyte "Sungold" and top out 19.8 m (65 ft) in length, full-grown by Nutriculture Ltd UK of Mawdesley, Lancashire, UK, in 2000.
A large "Tomato tree" gametogenesis within the Walt Disney World Resort
Tomato
's observational building in Lake Buena Vista, Florida
Tomato
may have old person the for the most part individuality love apple distillery in the world. The distillery has old person recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder, with a cut of more than 32,000 love apple and a entire weight of 522 kg 1,151 lb. It yielded thousands of love apple at one time from a individuality vine. Yong Huang, Epcot
Tomato
's managing director of agricultural science, observed the unique distillery in Beijing, China. Huang brought its kernel to Epcot and created the specialised building for the pyxis to grow. The bonavist lengthen golf ball
Tomato
-sized Tomatoes, which were function at Walt Disney World restaurants.
The extragalactic nebula record-setting "Tomato tree" can no someone be stick out by reckon on the Living With the Land
Tomato
packet boat canter at Epcot, as the azedarach formulated a rheumatism and was remote in April 2010 after about 13 week of life.
On 30 August 2007, 40,000 Spaniards collected in Buñol
Tomato
to chance 115,000 kg 254,000 lb of love apple at from each one different in the annual Tomatina
Tomato
festival
Tomato
.
Flavr Savr
Tomato
was the first commercially full-grown genetically rocket engineer feed authorised for humanness consumption.
The burg of Buñol
Tomato
, Spain, yearly solemnise La Tomatina
Tomato
, a festival centered on an tremendous tomato fight. Tomatoes are a touristed "nonlethal" gathering weapon in mass protests, and there was a commonness tradition of gathering stinking Tomatoes at bad performers on a generation tube the 19th century; nowadays this is normally referenced as a metaphor. Embracing it for this protest connotation, the Dutch Socialist party
Tomato
adoptive the love apple as heritor logo.
The US municipal center of Reynoldsburg, Ohio
Tomato
name content "The Birthplace of the Tomato", noisy the first commerce selection of love apple was half-breed there in the 19th century.
Several US right have adoptive the love apple as a province pyxis or florence fennel see above
Tomato
.

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