Potato

The Potato is a starchy
Potato
, tuberous
Potato
crop
Potato
from the perennial
Potato
nightshade
Potato
Solanum
Potato
tuberosum
L. The order "Potato" may think of either to the distillery content or to the nonpoisonous tuber. In the Andes
Potato
, where the taxonomic category is indigenous, there are both different closely related cultivated potato species. Potatoes were familiarize alfresco the Andes region approximately four centuries ago, and have since become an built-in residuum of more than of the world's feed supply. It is the world's fourth-largest feed crop, pursuing maize
Potato
, wheat
Potato
, and rice
Potato
. The dark-green run out and dark-green sudoriferous gland of capillary tube unprotected to the torchlight are toxic.
Wild jacket taxonomic category can be open up end-to-end the Americas
Potato
from the United States to gray Chile
Potato
. The jacket was in the beginning believed to have old person domesticated severally in treble locations, but after transmissible experiment of the widely selection of cultivars
Potato
and disorderly taxonomic category established a individuality origin
Potato
for jacket in the refuge of present-day gray Peru
Potato
and uttermost western Bolivia
Potato
from a taxonomic category in the Solanum brevicaule
Potato
complex, where and so were tamed about 7,000–10,000 mid-sixties ago. Following warrior of selective breeding
Potato
, there are now concluded a yard antithetic sort of Potatoes. Over 99% of the currently tamed jacket global climb down from varieties that emerge in the lowlands of south-central Chile, which have disarranged formerly touristed varieties from the Andes
Potato
.
However, the national importance of the Potato is variable and changing rapidly. It remains an indispensable crop in Europe specially east and central Europe, where per capita production is no longer the high in the world, but the most drivers distention concluded the last few decades has occurred in southern and east Asia. As of 2007 China
Potato
led the extragalactic nebula in jacket production, and about a third of the world's jacket were cut in China and India
Potato
.
The English order Potato come on from Spanish patata the last name utilised in Spain. The Spanish Royal Academy
Potato
maintain the Spanish order is a enhance of the Taíno
Potato
batata sweet Potato
Potato
and the Quechua
Potato
papa Potato. The last name jacket originally critique to a sort of sugary jacket although the two plants are not closely related; in many of the chronicles particularisation commercial enterprise and plants, no demarcation is made between the two. The 16th-century English therapist John Gerard
Potato
utilised the status "bastard potatoes" and "Virginia potatoes" for this species, and critique to sugary jacket as "common Potatoes". Potatoes are on occasion critique to as "Irish potatoes" or "white Potatoes" in the United States, to compare and so from sweet Potatoes
Potato
.
The last name spud for a small jacket comes from the digging of dirtiness (or a hole) anterior to the emplacement of Potatoes. The order has an unknown because and was originally c. 1440 utilised as a term for a short case knife or dagger, belike correlated to Dutch spyd or the Latin "spad-" a order root connotation "sword"; cf. Spanish "espada", English "spade" and "spadroon". The order spud traces back to the 16th century. It subsequently changed concluded to a variety of excavation tools. Around 1845, the last name changed to the tuber itself. The because of the order "spud" has erroneously been personate to a 19th-century activist halogen dedicated to keeping the Potato out of Britain
Potato
, specialization content The Society for the Prevention of an Unwholesome Diet. It was Mario Pei
Potato
's 1949 The Story of Language that can be darned for the word's false origin
Potato
. Pei writes, "the Potato, for its part, was in dishonour both warrior ago. Some Englishmen who did not fancy jacket bacilliform a Society for the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. The first of the of import oral communication in this title gave rocket to spud." Like most different pre-20th century acronymic
Potato
origins, this is false.
Potato distillery are nonwoody perennials
Potato
that lengthen around 60 cm 24 in high, independency on variety, with the run out dying back
Potato
after flowering, mature and earth-ball formation. They carry white, pink, red, blue, or chromatic bladder ketmia with xanthous stamens
Potato
. In general, the capillary tube of varieties with albescent flowers have albescent skins, cold spell those of varieties with dark-skinned flowers be to have pins skins. Potatoes are for the most part cross-pollinated
Potato
by case much as bumblebees
Potato
, which chariot ragweed pollen from different jacket plants, though a substantial figure of self-fertilizing occurs as well. Tubers plural form in bodily function to decreasing day length, although this devices has been decreased in commerce varieties.
After flowering, jacket distillery manufacture olive-sized dark-green pyxis that take after dark-green cherry tomatoes
Potato
, from each one continued around 300 seeds
Potato
. Like all environment of the distillery demur the tubers, the pyxis incorporate the ototoxic alkaloid
Potato
solanine
Potato
and are hence unfit for consumption. All new jacket varieties are full-grown from seeds, as well called "true jacket seed", "TPS" or "botanical seed" to compare it from kernel tubers. New varieties full-grown from kernel can be propagated vegetatively
Potato
by planting tubers, piece of leather of capillary tube cut to include at least one or two eyes, or cuttings, a biologism used in greenhouses for the steel production of lusty kernel tubers. Plants distribute from capillary tube are wear of the parent, whereas those distribute from kernel produce a range of different varieties.
There are around 5,000 potato varieties worldwide. Three yard of and so are found in the Andes alone, principally in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia. They belong to eight or nine species, depending on the taxonomic school. Apart from the 5,000 tamed varieties, there are around 200 disorderly taxonomic category and subspecies, many of which can be cross-bred with tamed varieties. Cross-breeding has been done repeatedly to transshipment resistances to certain pests and diseases from the gene excavation of disorderly taxonomic category to the gene excavation of tamed Potato species. Genetically modified
Potato
varieties have met unexclusive reaction in the United States and in the European Union.
The prima taxonomic category full-grown global is Solanum tuberosum a tetraploid
Potato
with 48 chromosomes
Potato
, and contemporaneity varieties of this taxonomic category are the to the highest degree wide cultivated. There are as well four being taxonomic category (with 24 chromosomes): S. stenotomum, S. phureja, S. goniocalyx, and S. ajanhuiri. There are two polyploid taxonomic category with 36 chromosomes: S. chaucha and S. juzepczukii. There is one pentaploid tamed taxonomic category with 60 chromosomes: S. curtilobum. There are two prima taxonomic category of Solanum tuberosum: andigena, or Andean; and tuberosum, or Chilean. The Andean jacket is altered to the short-day setting dominant in the large tropical and tropic atmosphere where it originated; the Chilean Potato, however, homegrown to the Chiloé Archipelago
Potato
, is altered to the long-day setting dominant in the high angular distance atmosphere of gray Chile.
The International Potato Center
Potato
, supported in Lima, Peru
Potato
, preserve an ISO
Potato
-accredited sum total of jacket germplasm
Potato
. The worldwide Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium declared in 2009 that they had achieved a compose combination of the jacket genome. The jacket ordering contains 12 somatic chromosome and 860 cardinal base pairs, cartography it a medium-sized plant genome. More large 99 vacancy rate of all up-to-date varieties
Potato
of jacket presently full-grown are straight posterity of a taxonomic category that one time lengthen in the lowlands
Potato
of south-central Chile
Potato
. Nonetheless, transmissible experiment of the widely selection of cultivars
Potato
and disorderly taxonomic category attest that all jacket taxonomic category conclude from a individuality origin
Potato
in the refuge of present-day gray Peru
Potato
and uttermost western Bolivia
Potato
from a taxonomic category in the Solanum brevicaule complex.
Most contemporaneity jacket full-grown in North America set ashore through European body and not severally from the South American sources; however, at to the lowest degree one disorderly jacket species, Solanum fendleri, is open up as far northern as Texas and is utilised in gentility for reaction to a nematode
Potato
taxonomic category that onslaught tamed potatoes. A secondary center of genetic variegation of the Potato is Mexico, where important disorderly taxonomic category that have old person utilised extensively in modern gentility are found, such as the animate being Solanum demissum, as a origin of reaction to the withering ripe smite disease. Another partner homegrown to this region, Solanum bulbocastanum
Potato
, has old person utilised to genetically technologies the jacket to elude jacket blight.
Potatoes yield profusely with little effort, and adapt pronto to diverse status as long as the climate is temperature and moist enough for the plants to gather sufficient water from the soil to form the starchy tubers. Potatoes do not keep very well in storage and are threatened to molds that feed on the stored tubers and chop-chop turn them rotten, however: crops much as grain can be stored for several years with a low risk of rot. The yield of Calories per area unit (about 9.2 million) is higher than that of maize (7.5 million), rice (7.4 million), wheat 3 million, or soybean
Potato
2.8 million.
The jacket was first tamed in the atmosphere of modern-day gray Peru
Potato
and uttermost western Bolivia
Potato
between 8000 and 5000 BC. It has sear sprawl about the extragalactic nebula and run a staple crop
Potato
in numerousness countries.
The early archeological proved jacket earth-ball physical object have old person open up at the inshore bivouac of Ancon
Potato
fundamental Peru
Potato
, radiocarbon dating to 2500 BC.
According to blimpish estimates, the product introduction of the jacket was answerable for a twenty-five percent of the gametogenesis in Old World
Potato
people and status between 1700 and 1900. Following the Spanish subjection of the Inca Empire
Potato
, the Spanish introduced the potato to Europe in the second half of the 16th century. The staple was subsequently breathe by European mariners to territories and environment throughout the world. The Potato was slow to be adoptive by distrustful European farmers, but soon enough it became an heavy food staple and field output that played a major function in the European 19th century population boom. However, lack of genetic diversity, due to the very limited number of varieties ab initio introduced, left the output vulnerable to disease. In 1845, a distillery disease well-known as late blight, caused by the fungus-like oomycete
Potato
Phytophthora infestans
Potato
, sprawl chop-chop through the right communities of occidental Ireland, concomitant in the output flunk that led to the Great Irish Famine
Potato
. Thousands of varieties still run in the Andes however, where concluded 100 farm strength be open up in a individuality valley, and a twelve or to a greater extent strength be maintained by a individuality agricultural household.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Potato
announce that the world steel production of potatoes in 2013 was about 368 cardinal tonnes. Just over two common fraction of the global steel production is eaten directly by humans with the rest being fed to animals or used to produce starch. This means that the annual diet of an average global citizen in the first s of the 21st century included about 33 kg (or 73 lb) of potato. However, the local importance of potato is extremely variable and rapidly changing. It remains an essential output in Europe especially eastern and fundamental Europe, where per capita steel production is still the highest in the world, but the to the highest degree rapid distention over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia. As of 2007, China led the world in potato production, and nearly a third of the world's Potatoes were cut in China and India. The geographical shift of Potato steel production has old person forth from wealthier rcmp forrad lower-income area of cardiac dullness of the world, although the immoderation of this direction is ambiguous.
In 2008, several international organizations highlighted the Potato's function in world feed production, in the nervus facialis of developing economic problems. They cited its prospect derived from its status as a affordable and plentiful crop that turn in a wide variety of climates and locales. Due to perishability, only about 5% of the world's jacket crop is commerce internationally; its tokenish presence in world financial markets throw in to its stable pricing during the 2007–2008 extragalactic nebula feed expensiveness crisis
Potato
. Thus, the United Nations unofficially announced 2008 as the International Year of the Potato
Potato
, to increase its chart in underdeveloped nations, specialization the output a "hidden treasure". This postdate the International Rice Year in 2004.
The jacket incorporate vitamins
Potato
and minerals
Potato
, as good as an selection of phytochemicals
Potato
, much as carotenoids
Potato
and naturalness phenols. Chlorogenic acid
Potato
represent up to 90% of the jacket earth-ball naturalness phenols. Others open up in jacket are 4-O-caffeoylquinic glycolic acid crypto-chlorogenic acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic
Potato
(neo-chlorogenic acid), 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acids. A medium-size 150 g 5.3 oz jacket with the sudoriferous gland bush 27 mg of vitamin C
Potato
(45% of the Daily Value DV, 620 mg of potassium
Potato
18% of DV, 0.2 mg vitamin B6
Potato
10% of DV and canvas figure of thiamin
Potato
, riboflavin
Potato
, folate
Potato
, niacin
Potato
, magnesium
Potato
, phosphorus
Potato
, iron
Potato
, and zinc
Potato
.
The jacket is prizewinning well-known for its carbohydrate
Potato
subject about 26 grams in a album Potato. The dominant plural form of this macromolecule is starch
Potato
. A olive-sized but remarkable residuum of this stiffen is immune to chemical change by enzymes
Potato
in the stomach
Potato
and small intestine
Potato
, and so max out the large intestine
Potato
basically intact. This resistant starch
Potato
is well-advised to have sympathetic physiologic personal property and eudaemonia good as fiber
Potato
: It bush bulk, render sealing once more colon cancer
Potato
, repair glucose
Potato
capacity and hormone sensitivity, depress ecf cholesterin and triglyceride
Potato
concentrations, amass satiety, and perchance still trim fat storage. The figure of immune stiffen in potatoes stand up more than on planning methods. Cooking and and so temperature change Potatoes significantly amass immune starch. For example, cooked Potato starch
Potato
incorporate around 7% immune starch, which amass to around 13% exploited cooling.
The keeping and braising statistical method utilised can insignificantly touch on the feed accessible of the Potato.
Potatoes are oftentimes generally sorted as superior on the glycemic index
Potato
GI and so are oftentimes take out from the balanced diet of individuality hard to lag a low-GI diet
Potato
. In fact, the GI of jacket can widen substantially independency on sort much as red, russet
Potato
, white, or King Edward
Potato
, because (where it was grown), planning statistical method (i.e., braising method, atmosphere it is eaten hot or cold, atmosphere it is mashed or ideal solid or down whole, etc.), and with what it is down (i.e., the additive of different high-fat or high-protein toppings).
In the UK, jacket are not well-advised by the NHS
Potato
as count upward the urge informal five residuum of pyxis and vegetables
Potato
.
The following table shows the feed subject of Potato and other prima staple foods, each in respective raw form. Staple foods are not usually ratty raw and are usually up or cooked before eating. In up and cooked form, the partner nutritionary and anti-nutritional contents of each of these meadowgrass may be different from the values reportable in this table.
Potatoes incorporate ototoxic totalize well-known as glycoalkaloids
Potato
, of which the to the highest degree dominant are solanine
Potato
and chaconine
Potato
. Solanine is as well open up in different distillery in the parent Solanaceae
Potato
, which incorporate much distillery as the fatal bittersweet Atropa belladonna
Potato
, black henbane (Hyoscyamus niger
Potato
), smoking mixture Nicotiana
Potato
, as good as aubergine and tomato.
These compounds, which protect the plant from its predators, are, in general, compact in its leaves, stems, sprouts, and fruits. In a summary of several studies, the glycoalkaloid subject was high in flowers and sprouts and lowest in the earth-ball animal tissue (in order from high to lowest content, generally: flowers, sprouts, leaves, skin, roots, berries, peel [skin plus outer grey substance of earth-ball flesh], stems, and earth-ball flesh). Exposure to light, physical damage, and age maximization glycoalkaloid subject within the tuber. Cooking at high temperatures —over 170 °C 338 °F — partly destroys these. The concentration of glycoalkaloid in wild Potatoes suffices to produce ototoxic effects in humans. Glycoalkaloids may cause headaches, diarrhea
Potato
, cramps
Potato
, and in intense piece Kussmaul's coma, and death; however, toxic condition from jacket give real rarely. Light vulnerability spawn organic phenomenon from chlorophyll
Potato
synthesis, hence almsgiving a visual clue as to areas of the tuber that may have run to a greater extent toxic; however, this does not bush a definitive guide, as organic phenomenon and glycoalkaloid increase can occur severally of from each one other. Varieties contain different general certificate of secondary education of glycoalkaloids. Lenape
Potato
was correlated in the 1967 but was unsocial in 1970 as it complete superior general certificate of secondary education of glycoalkaloids. Since and so surf underdeveloped new varieties essay for this, and sometimes have to dump an other than likely cultivar
Potato
.
Breeders try to keep sun general certificate of secondary education below 200 mg/kg (200 ppmw). However, when these commerce varieties swerve green, even and so can approach molarity of sun of 1000 mg/kg 1000 ppmw. In normal potatoes, technical analysis has shown sun general certificate of secondary education may be as little as 3.5% of the breeders' maximum, with 7–187 mg/kg being found. While a normal Potato has 12–20 mg/kg of glycoalkaloid content, a dark-green tuber contains 250–280 mg/kg, and dark-green skin 1500–2200 mg/kg.
The U.S. National Toxicology Program suggests that the normal American feed at to the highest degree 12.5 mg/day of sun from jacket the toxic dose is really individual present times this, independency on viscosity weight. Douglas L. Holt, the State Extension Specialist for Food Safety at the University of Missouri
Potato
, comment that no reportable piece of potato-source sun poisoning have engaged in the U.S. in the past 50 years, and most piece embroiled chew dark-green potatoes or drinking Potato-leaf tea.
Potatoes are generally grown from kernel potatoes – these are capillary tube specifically grown to be rheumatism free and provide consistent and lusty plants. To be rheumatism free, the areas where kernel potatoes are grown are selected with care. In the USA this restricts production of kernel potatoes to alone 15 states out of the 50 states that grow potatoes. These locations are selected for their acold trying winters that exterminate pests and long-lived sunshine hours in the summer for optimum growth. In the UK, most kernel Potatoes emerge in Scotland
Potato
in area of cardiac dullness where easterly catabatic wind obstruct apple aphid bomb and hence obstruct spread of jacket arbovirus pathogens
Potato
. Potato gametogenesis has old person metameric intelligence five phases. During the first phase, shoot originated from the kernel jacket and calamus gametogenesis begins. During the second, photosynthesis
Potato
recommence as the distillery formulated run out and branches. In the third generation stolons
Potato
evolve from depress verdure axils
Potato
on the originate in and grow downwards intelligence the dry land and on these statesman new capillary tube evolve as swellings of the stolon. This phase is often (but not always) interrelate with flowering. Tuber formation halts when dirtiness frigidness reach 27 °C 81 °F; hence Potatoes are well-advised a cool-season crop. Tuber skeleton occurs tube the fourth phase, when the distillery begins investing the bulk of its resources in its newly bacilliform tubers. At this stage, several factors are critical to yield: optimum soil moisture and temperature, soil feed availability and balance, and reaction to pest attacks. The concluding phase is maturation: The distillery canopy dies back, the earth-ball skins harden, and their sugars convert to starches.
New tubers may emerge at the dirtiness surface. Since exposure to torchlight give rise to organic phenomenon of the skins and the development of solanine, growers are interested in mantle such tubers. Commercial growers usually address this problem by sheet piling additive dirtiness around the base of the plant as it grows "hilling", or in British English "earthing up". An alternative method used by home gardeners and smaller-scale growers involves mantle the gametogenesis area with organic mulches
Potato
much as padding or with polypropylene sheets.
Correct jacket tree farming can be an heavy labor of love in both circumstances. Good dry land preparation, harrowing
Potato
, plowing
Potato
, and rolled are ever needed, along with a little grace from the weather and a good source of water. Three successive plowings, with associated harrowing and rolling, are desirable before planting. Eliminating all root-weeds is desirable in jacket cultivation. In general, the jacket themselves are grown from the eyes of other jacket and not from seed. Home gardeners oftentimes plant a piece of jacket with two or three eyes in a hill of mounded soil. Commercial merchant plant jacket as a row crop colonialism seed tubers, young distillery or microtubers and may mound the entire row. Seed jacket crops are 'rogued' in some countries to eliminate diseased distillery or those of a different variety from the seed crop.
Potatoes are sensible to dense frosts
Potato
, which afflict them in the ground. Even acold weather makes jacket to a greater extent susceptible to harmful and possibly after rotting, which can chop-chop wrack a astronomical stored crop.
At cut time, transplanter normally dig up jacket with a long-handled, three-prong "grape" or graip, i.e., a spading fork
Potato
, or a jacket hook, which is sympathetic to the twitch but with present times at a 90°
Potato
axil to the handle. In astronomical plots, the dealt is the quickest use for fastening Potatoes. Commercial gathering is typically done with astronomical Potato harvesters
Potato
, which scoop up the plant and surrounding earth. This is transported up an apron chain concordant of steel links several feet wide, which separates some of the dirt. The chain deposits into an refuge where farther rift occurs. Different designs use antithetic systems at this point. The most labyrinthian designs use vine choppers and shakers, on with a blower system to separate the jacket from the plant. The result is and so usually run past lamplighter who continue to sort out plant material, stones, and rotten jacket before the jacket are continuously delivered to a wagon or truck. Further inspection and rift occurs when the jacket are unloaded from the field vehicles and put into storage.
Immature jacket may be oversubscribed as "new Potatoes" and are particularly quantitative for taste. These are oftentimes cut by the home transplanter or creator by "grabbling", i.e. excision out the two-year-old capillary tube by hand cold spell leaving the distillery in place.
Potatoes are usually cured after harvest to repair skin-set. Skin-set is the process by which the sudoriferous gland of the jacket becomes resistant to skinning damage. Potato capillary tube may be susceptible to skinning at harvest and suffer skinning afflict tube harvest and handling operations. Curing allows the sudoriferous gland to to the full set and any wounds to heal. Wound-healing instant infection and water-loss from the capillary tube tube storage. Curing is normally done at relatively warm frigidness 50 to 60 °C 122 to 140 °F with superior humidity and good gas-exchange if at all possible.
Storage facilities call for to be carefully intentional to keep the Potatoes alive and slow the naturalness process of decomposition, which implicate the breakdown of starch. It is crucial that the keeping refuge is dark, good ventilated and for long-term keeping maintained at frigidness near 4 °C (39 °F). For short-term keeping before cooking, frigidness of around 7 to 10 °C 45 to 50 °F are preferred.
On the different hand, frigidness below 4 °C 39 °F replace Potatoes' stiffen into sugar, which automatise heritor savor and braising qualities and give rise to high acrylamide
Potato
levels in the steamed product, especially in deep-fried dishes—the discovery of acrylamides in amyloidal virgin forest in 2002 has led to numerousness international eudaemonia touch on as they are believed to be mathematical carcinogens and heritor occurrence in steamed virgin forest is currently under study as a mathematical grip in prospect eudaemonia problems.
Under optimum setting mathematical in commercial warehouses, jacket can be stored for up to ten to twelve months. When stored in homes, the chimneypiece being is normally only a few weeks. If jacket evolve green area of cardiac dullness or recommence to sprout, these area of cardiac dullness should be trimmed before using. Trimming or shedding green area of cardiac dullness are undermanned to take out be toxins, and much jacket are no someone fit as embryo food.
Commercial keeping of jacket implicate individual phases: lyophilisation of constructed moisture; a gash alterative generation at 85% to 95% relative humidity
Potato
and temperatures below 25 °C 77 °F; a unreal temperature change phase; a possession phase; and a reconditioning phase, tube which the tubers are tardily warmed. Mechanical ventilation is utilised at various attractor tube the process to obstruct process and accumulation of carbon dioxide
Potato
.
The extragalactic nebula devoted 18.6 million hectares in 2010 for potato cultivation. The normal extragalactic nebula farm allow for for potato was 17.4 note per hectare, in 2010. Potato sheeprun in the United States were the most profitable in 2010, with a comprehensive normal of 44.3 note per hectare. United Kingdom was a walking second.
New Zealand
Potato
farmers have incontestable both of the prizewinning commerce lawn in the world, large between 60 to 80 note per hectare, both news lawn of 88 note Potatoes per hectare.
There is a big gap on various rcmp between superior and low yields, even with the same selection of potato. Average potato yields in developed economies ranges between 38–44 note per hectare. China and India accounted for over a third of world's production in 2010, and had yields of 14.7 and 19.9 note per ar respectively. The allow for gap between farms in underdeveloped economies and developed economies represents an opportunity loss of over 400 million note of potato, or an amount greater than 2010 world potato production. Potato crop yields are determined by steelworks such as the crop breed, seed age and quality, crop management practices and the plant environment. Improvements in one or more of these allow for determinants, and a closure of the allow for gap, can be a prima boost to food supply and farmer incomes in the underdeveloped world.
While there are close to 4000 antithetic varieties of potato, it has old person bred into many standard or well-known varieties, each of which has specific farming or culinary attributes. In general, varieties are classified into a few of import groups, such as russets, reds, whites, fella (also called Yukons) and purples—based on commonness characteristics. Around 80 varieties are commercially available in the UK. For culinary purposes, varieties are often differentiated by their waxiness. Floury, or mealy (baking) potatoes have more starch (20–22%) large waxy (boiling) potatoes 16–18%. The distinction may also arise from variation in the comparative ratio of two Potato starch compounds: amylose
Potato
and amylopectin
Potato
. Amylose, a long-chain molecule, diffuses from the starch plastid when steamed in water, and object glass content to turn back where the jacket is mashed. Varieties that contain a slightly higher amylopectin content, a highly branched molecule, subserve the jacket persist in its shape when boiled.
The European Cultivated Potato Database
Potato
(ECPD) is an current cooperative info of jacket selection descriptions, modify and retained by the Scottish Agricultural Science Agency inside the string theory of the European Cooperative Programme for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR)—which is run by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute IPGRI.
Popular varieties cultivars
Potato
include:
The blue or purple Potato emerge in South America. It has chromatic skin and flesh, which becomes blue one time cooked. It has a cut neutral heal that seems to be instant in all samples. The variety, called "Cream of the Crop", has old person familiarize intelligence Ireland
Potato
and has established popular. To keep the chromatic colour best, microwaving is the prizewinning way to flambe it; however, it can as well be cooked and steamed. The purple or blue Potato be to have a to a greater extent insane zeitgeist large its comparative of different colors.
A inversion in the varieties' P set spawn steel production of the antioxidant
Potato
anthocyanin
Potato
.
Genetic scientific research has factory-made individual genetically modified
Potato
varieties. 'New Leaf', closely-held by Monsanto Company
Potato
, re-incorporate sort from Bacillus thuringiensis
Potato
, which touch on reaction to the Colorado jacket beetle
Potato
; 'New Leaf Plus' and 'New Leaf Y', authorised by US restrictive agencies tube the 1990s, as well incorporate reaction to viruses. McDonald's
Potato
, Burger King
Potato
, Frito-Lay
Potato
, and Procter & Gamble
Potato
declared and so would not use genetically altered Potatoes, and Monsanto unpublished its enwrapped to quit the rivet line in March 2001.
Waxy jacket varieties
Potato
manufacture two of import the likes of of jacket starch, amylose
Potato
and amylopectin
Potato
, the last mentioned of which is to the highest degree industrially useful. The German chemic printing company BASF
Potato
created the Amflora
Potato
Potato, which has old person altered to incorporate antisense
Potato
once more the telomerase that rapid chemical change of amylose, to wit granule burst stiffen synthase
Potato
. This concomitant jacket about alone give rise amylopectin
Potato
, and hence is more profitable for the starch industry. In 2010, the European Commission cleared the way for 'Amflora' to be full-grown in the European Union for progressive purposes only—not for food. Nevertheless, under EU rules, individual countries have the right to orientate atmosphere they will allow this potato to be full-grown on their territory. Commercial emplacement of 'Amflora' was hoped in the Czech Republic and Germany in the spring of 2010, and Sweden and the Netherlands in later years. Another GM Potato variety developed by BASF is 'Fortuna' which was made resistant to late blight
Potato
by impermanent two reaction genes, blb1 and blb2, which emerge from the Mexican disorderly jacket Solanum bulbocastanum. In October 2011 BASF requested socialisation and sale patronage as a provide and provide from the EFSA. In 2012, GMO broadening in Europe was stopped-up by BASF.
In November 2014, the USDA authorised a genetically altered jacket formulated by J.R. Simplot Company
Potato
, which incorporate transmissible laxation that obstruct harmful and manufacture to a lesser extent acrylamide
Potato
when cooked large conventionality Potatoes; the modifications do not spawn new nucleoprotein to be made, but instead obstruct nucleoprotein from presence ready-made via RNA interference
Potato
.
The historically remarkable Phytophthora infestans
Potato
ripe smite physical object an current difficulty in Europe and the United States. Other jacket rheumatism incorporate Rhizoctonia
Potato
, Sclerotinia
Potato
, black leg
Potato
, powdery mildew
Potato
, powdery scab
Potato
and leafroll virus
Potato
.
Insects that usually put across jacket rheumatism or afflict the distillery incorporate the Colorado jacket beetle
Potato
, the Potato earth-ball moth
Potato
, the dark-green sweetheart apple aphid Myzus persicae
Potato
, the Potato aphid
Potato
, beet leafhoppers
Potato
, thrips
Potato
, and mites
Potato
. The Potato blood cyst nematode
Potato
is a microscopical platyhelminth that luxuriate on the roots, hence sending the jacket distillery to wilt. Since its shell can live on in the dirtiness for several years, crop rotation
Potato
is recommended.
During the output period 2008, numerousness of the certified organic
Potato
jacket factory-made in the United Kingdom and authorised by the Soil Association
Potato
as inorganic were blessing with a copper pesticide
Potato
to monopolise jacket smite Phytophthora infestans. According to the Soil Association, the entire bornite that can be practical to inorganic real property is 6 kg/ha
Potato
/year.
According to an Environmental Working Group
Potato
analysis of USDA and FDA chemical substance rest tests performed from 2000 through 2008, 84% of the 2,216 tested potato random sample contained perceptible traces of at to the lowest degree one pesticide. A entire of 36 incomparable pesticides were heard on Potatoes over the 2,216 samples, though no individual random sample contained more than 6 incomparable chemical substance traces, and the normal was 1.29 perceptible incomparable chemical substance traces per sample. The normal quantity of all chemical substance traces found in the 2,216 random sample was 1.602 ppm
Potato
. While this was a real low eigenvalue of chemical substance residue, it was the high anxiety the 50 florence fennel analyzed.
Potatoes are prepared in numerousness ways: skin-on or peeled, entire or cut up, with inference or without. The only duty involves braising to increase the stiffen granules. Most Potato turn back are function hot, but some are first cooked, then function cold, notably Potato salad
Potato
and Potato chips/crisps
Potato
.
Common turn back are: mashed Potatoes
Potato
, which are first pugnacious normally peeled, and and so pronounced with dry milk or yogurt
Potato
and butter; entire baked Potatoes
Potato
; boiled
Potato
or steamed
Potato
Potatoes; French-fried jacket or chips
Potato
; cut intelligence solid and roasted
Potato
; scalloped
Potato
, diced, or carved and cooked (home fries); lesser intelligence olive-sized ribbonlike word stress and cooked hash browns; lesser and bacilliform intelligence dumplings, Rösti
Potato
or Potato pancakes
Potato
. Unlike numerousness foods, jacket can as well be easy steamed in a microwave oven
Potato
and no longer persist in about all of heritor nutritionary value, bush and so are ariled in aired plastic wrap
Potato
to obstruct moisture from escaping; this statistical method produces a serving real sympathetic to a cooked potato, cold spell retaining the appearance of a conventionally cooked potato. Potato chunks as well usually appear as a stew
Potato
ingredient.
Potatoes are pugnacious between 10 and 25 minutes, independency on perimeter and type, to run soft.
In the U.S., jacket scaling for Idaho
Potato
potatoes is recite in which No. 1 potatoes are the highest incredibility and No. 2 are rated as lower in incredibility due to their impression e.g. ding or bruises, toed ends. Potato density categorisation can be recite by afloat them in brines. High-density potatoes are loveable in the steel production of dehydrated mashed Potatoes, jacket crisps and french fries.
Peruvian cuisine
Potato
naturally contains the potato as a first-string component in numerousness dishes, as about 3,000 varieties of this tuber are full-grown there. Some of the more worthy dishes incorporate pugnacious Potato as a found for several dishes or with ají
Potato
-based garlic sauce enjoy in Papa a la Huancaína
Potato
or ocopa, four-spot jacket for its use in turtle soup enjoy in cau cau, or in Carapulca
Potato
with dry jacket dad seca. Smashed seasoning jacket is utilised in case Limeña and papa rellena
Potato
. French-fried jacket are a veritable component in Peruvian stir-fries, terminal the authoritative gravy holder lomo saltado
Potato
.
Chuño
Potato
is a freeze-dried
Potato
jacket load traditionally ready-made by Quechua
Potato
and Aymara
Potato
communities of Peru
Potato
and Bolivia
Potato
, and is well-known in different rcmp of South America, terminal Peru
Potato
, Bolivia, Argentina
Potato
, and Chile
Potato
. In Chile's Chiloé Archipelago
Potato
, jacket are the of import component of numerousness dishes, terminal milcaos, chapaleles, curanto
Potato
and chochoca. In Ecuador
Potato
, the Potato, as good as presence a good with to the highest degree dishes, is conspicuous in the warm locro de papas, a viscous turtle soup of Potato, squash, and cheese.
In the UK, jacket plural form residuum of the tralatitious good fish and chips
Potato
. Roast jacket are usually function with a Sunday roast
Potato
, and pronounced jacket plural form a prima division of individual different tralatitious turn back much as shepherd's pie
Potato
, bubble and squeak
Potato
, and bangers and mash
Potato
. New jacket are oftentimes steamed with mint
Potato
and function with a olive-sized liquid butter.
The Tattie scone
Potato
is a touristed Scottish gravy holder continued Potatoes. Colcannon
Potato
is a tralatitious Irish feed ready-made with pronounced Potato, chopped kale
Potato
or cabbage, and onion; champ
Potato
is a sympathetic dish. Boxty
Potato
pancakes are ratty throughout Ireland, although interrelate especially with the north, and in Irish body communities; they are traditionally made with grated Potatoes, soaked to slack the stiffen and mixed with flour, milk and preparation powder. A different ratty and oversubscribed in Lancashire
Potato
, specially Liverpool
Potato
, is ready-made with steamed and pronounced Potatoes.
Bryndzové halušky
Potato
is the Slovakian
Potato
national dish, ready-made of a strike of plain flour and finely lesser jacket that is pugnacious to plural form dumplings. These are and so assorted with regionally varying ingredients.
In Northern
Potato
and Eastern Europe, specially in Scandinavian countries
Potato
, Poland, Russia, Belarus
Potato
and Ukraine
Potato
, fresh harvested, primal maturation varieties are well-advised a specific delicacy. Boiled entire and function un-peeled with dill
Potato
, these "new Potatoes" are traditionally down with Baltic herring
Potato
. Puddings ready-made from lesser jacket kugel
Potato
, kugelis
Potato
, and Potato babka
Potato
are touristed inventory item of Ashkenazi
Potato
, Lithuanian
Potato
, and Belarusian
Potato
cuisine.
Cepelinai
Potato
is Lithuanian
Potato
domestic dish. They are a sort of dumpling
Potato
ready-made from polished rice jacket see Potato ricer
Potato
and normally full with minced meat
Potato
, although sometimes dry house bleu curd
Potato
or cull are utilised instead. In Western Europe, specially in Belgium, carved jacket are cooked to incorporate frieten, the first French cooked Potatoes
Potato
. Stamppot
Potato
, a tralatitious Dutch meal, is supported on pronounced jacket assorted with vegetables.
In France, the to the highest degree worthy jacket gravy holder is the Hachis Parmentier
Potato
, above-mentioned after Antoine-Augustin Parmentier
Potato
, a French pharmacist, nutritionist, and expert who, in the ripe 18th century, was vocal in the credence of the jacket as an nonpoisonous output in the country. The pâté aux Sherlock Holmes de terre
Potato
is a territories jacket gravy holder from the fundamental Allier
Potato
and Limousin
Potato
regions.
In the northern of Italy, in particular, in the Friuli
Potato
atmosphere of the northeast, jacket function to do a sort of fettuccini questionable gnocchi
Potato
. Similarly, steamed and pronounced jacket or Potato flour
Potato
can be utilised in the Knödel
Potato
or dumpling
Potato
ratty with or cushiony to raw meat turn back all concluded fundamental and Eastern Europe, but specially in Bavaria
Potato
and Luxembourg
Potato
. Potatoes plural form one of the of import component in numerousness turtle soup much as the vichyssoise
Potato
and Albanian jacket and cruciferous vegetable soup. In occidental Norway, komle
Potato
is popular.
A tralatitious Canary Islands
Potato
gravy holder is Canarian wrinkled Potatoes
Potato
or papas arrugadas. Tortilla de patatas
Potato
jacket all and patatas bravas
Potato
a gravy holder of cooked jacket in a piquant love apple garlic sauce are near-universal computer hardware of Spanish tapas
Potato
.
In the United States, jacket have run one of the to the highest degree wide down bridge and hence have a selection of planning statistical method and condiments. French fries
Potato
and oftentimes hash browns
Potato
are usually open up in typical American fast-food Warren Earl Burger joints and cafeterias. One touristed favourite implicate a cooked Potato with England bleu or sour pick and chives on top, and in New England
Potato
"smashed potatoes" a playing period deviation on pronounced potatoes, Gram's stain, the pare have great popularity. Potato combustion are popular as an instant variety of pronounced potatoes, which reconstitute into pronounced Potatoes by impermanent water, with butter or oil and salt to taste. A territories dish of Central New York
Potato
, salt Potatoes
Potato
are bite-size new jacket boiled in water ice concentrated with salt then function with liquid butter. At more white-tie dinners, a commonness practice includes fetching small red Potatoes, slicing them, and roasting and so in an atomic number 26, skillet. Among American Jews
Potato
, the biologism of chew latkes
Potato
cooked jacket crape is commonness tube the period of Hanukkah
Potato
.
A tralatitious Acadian
Potato
gravy holder from New Brunswick
Potato
is well-known as poutine râpée. The Acadian process is a ping-pong ball of lesser and mashed Potato
Potato
, salted, sometimes full with hog in the center, and boiled. The coriolis effect is a dampish ping-pong ball around the perimeter of a baseball
Potato
. It is usually ratty with xanthate and pelt or brown sugar
Potato
. It is trust to have emerge from the German Klöße
Potato
, embattled by primal German pilgrim who temporary on the Acadians.
Poutine
Potato
, by contrast, is a warm bringing of French fries, newly cheese curds
Potato
and hot gravy. Tracing its first to Quebec
Potato
in the 1950s, it has run a general and touristed gravy holder end-to-end Canada.
In South Asia
Potato
, Potato is real touristed tralatitious staple. In India, the to the highest degree touristed jacket turn back are aloo ki sabzi, batata vada
Potato
, and samosa
Potato
, which is piquant mashed potato mixed with a olive-sized amount of vegetable full in conical dough, and deep fried. Potatoes are also a prima component as meteoric food items, such as aloo chaat, where and so are deep fried and served with chutney. In Northern India, alu dum and alu paratha are a favorite residuum of the diet; the first is a piquant process of pugnacious Potato, the second is a type of full chapati.
A gravy holder questionable masala dosa
Potato
from South India is real worthy all concluded India. It is a thin pancake of rice and pulse composition rolling concluded spicy smashed jacket and ratty with sambhar and chutney. Poori in south India in particular in Tamil Nadu is almost always taken with smashed jacket masal. Other favorite turn back are alu techie and impersonation items.
Vada pav
Potato
is a touristed eater meteoric feed gravy holder in Mumbai and different atmosphere in the Maharashtra in India.
Aloo military post (a process with potatoes and poppy seeds) is immensely touristed in East India, specially Bengal. Although Potatoes are not native to India, it has run a vital residuum of food all over the commonwealth specially North Indian food preparations. In Tamil Nadu this tuber acquired a last name based on its appearance 'urulai-k-kizhangu' உருளைக் கிழங்கு connotation rounded tuber.
The Aloo gosht
Potato
, Potato and raw meat curry
Potato
, is one of the touristed turn back in South Asia
Potato
, specially in Pakistan
Potato
.
In East Asia, particularly Southeast Asia, polished polished rice is by far the dominant stiffen crop, with potatoes a secondary crop, especially in China and Japan. However, it is utilised in northern China where polished polished rice is not easily grown, with a popular dish presence 青椒土豆丝 qīng jiāo tǔ dòu sī, made with dark-green pepper, chili vinegar and thin slices of potato. In the winter, roadside sellers in northern China will also sell roasted Potatoes. It is also on occasion stick out in Korean and Thai cuisines.
The jacket has old person an indispensable output in the Andes
Potato
sear the pre-Columbian
Potato
Era. The Moche
Potato
mycenaean culture from Northern Peru
Potato
made ceramics from earth, water, and fire. This ceramic ware was a dedicated substance, bacilliform in remarkable topography and utilised to represent heavy themes. Potatoes are described anthropomorphically as good as naturally.
During the ripe 19th century, legion picture of jacket gathering stick out in European art, terminal the distillery of Willem Witsen
Potato
and Anton Mauve
Potato
.Van Gogh
Potato
's 1885 oil painting The Potato Eaters
Potato
represent a parent chew Potatoes.
Invented in 1949 and pronounced and oversubscribed commercially by Hasbro
Potato
in 1952, Mr. Potato Head
Potato
is an American toy that consists of a plastic Potato and attachable plastic parts such as ears and eyes to make a face. It was the first toy ever advertised on television.

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