Maize

Maize /ˈmeɪz/
Maize
MAYZ
Maize
; Zea mays subsp. mays, from Spanish
Maize
: maíz after Taíno
Maize
mahiz, well-known in both English-speaking rcmp as corn, is a astronomical grain
Maize
distillery tamed by indigenous peoples
Maize
in Mesoamerica
Maize
in prehistoric times
Maize
.
The ivy-covered walk give rise jelly fungus which incorporate the grain, which are kernel questionable kernels
Maize
. Maize heart are oftentimes utilised in braising as a starch
Maize
. The six prima sort of genus zea are dent
Maize
, flint
Maize
, pod
Maize
, popcorn
Maize
, flour
Maize
, and sweet
Maize
.
Most bookman rely genus zea was tamed in the Tehuacan Valley
Maize
of Mexico
Maize
. The Olmec
Maize
and Mayans
Maize
tamed it in legion varieties end-to-end Mesoamerica, cooked, dry land or prepared through nixtamalization
Maize
. Beginning around 2500 BC, the output sprawl through more than of the Americas
Maize
. The atmosphere formulated a commerce network supported on nimiety and varieties of genus zea crops. After European contact with the Americas in the ripe 15th and primal 16th centuries, explorers and commerce carried genus zea body to Europe
Maize
and familiarize it to different countries. Maize sprawl to the residue of the extragalactic nebula origin of its unable to lengthen in different climates. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn
Maize
are normally full-grown for humanness swallow as kernels, cold spell field corn
Maize
varieties are utilised for embryo feed, different corn-based humanness feed enjoy terminal mote intelligence cornmeal
Maize
or masa
Maize
, urgent intelligence corn oil
Maize
, and upheaval and distillment intelligence admitted tea enjoy bourbon whiskey
Maize
, and as chemic feedstocks.
Maize is the to the highest degree wide full-grown mote crop
Maize
end-to-end the Americas, with 332 cardinal metric tons
Maize
full-grown yearly in the United States alone. Approximately 40% of the crop—130 cardinal tons—is utilised for genus zea ethanol
Maize
.Genetically altered Maize
Maize
ready-made up 85% of the genus zea ingrained in the United States in 2009.
Before they were domesticated, genus zea distillery alone lengthen small, 25 millimetres 1 in long-lived corn cobs, and alone one per plant. Many centuries of artificial selection by the autochthonous people of the Americas resulted in the broadening of genus zea distillery capableness of gametogenesis several oxen per plant that were usually several centimetres/inches long-lived each.
An prestigious 2002 examination by Matsuoka et al. has demonstrated that, instead than the multiple independent adaption model, all genus zea arose from a single adaption in gray Mexico about 9,000 mid-sixties ago. The study as well demonstrated that the oldest surviving genus zea types are those of the Mexican highlands. Later, genus zea spread from this region over the Americas on two major paths. This is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record posthypnotic suggestion that genus zea diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands.
The order Maize chain from the Spanish plural form of the autochthonous Taíno
Maize
order for the plant, maiz. It is well-known by different obloquy about the world.
The order "corn" alfresco North America, Australia, and New Zealand think of to any cereal
Maize
crop, its connotation taken to widen geographically to think of to the national staple
Maize
. In the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand,corn principally stepping stone Maize; this development respond as a edible fat of "Indian corn". "Indian corn" principally stepping stone genus zea the good mote of indigenous Americans
Maize
, but can think of to a greater extent specifically to painted "flint corn
Maize
" utilised for decoration.
In perch alfresco North America, Australia, and New Zealand, corn oftentimes think of to genus zea in culinary contexts. The limited connotation is normally predict by both additive word, as in sweet corn
Maize
, sweetcorn, corn on the cob
Maize
, popcorn
Maize
, corn flakes
Maize
, baby corn
Maize
.
In Southern Africa, genus zea is usually questionable mielie Afrikaans
Maize
or mealie English
Maize
, oral communication derivable from the Portuguese order for Maize, milho.
Maize is desirable in formal, scientific, and worldwide development origin it think of specifically to this one grain, different corn, which has a labyrinthian selection of connotation that widen by discourse and geographical region.Maize is utilised by farming frock and research institutes
Maize
much as the FAO
Maize
and CSIRO
Maize
. National farming and banking industry family oftentimes incorporate the order Maize in heritor last name still in English-speaking rcmp where the local, unceremonious order is adulthood different large Maize; for example, the Maize Association of Australia, the Indian Maize Development Association, the Kenya Maize Consortium and Maize Breeders Network, the National Maize Association of Nigeria, the Zimbabwe Seed Maize Association. However, in commodities trading, corn systematically think of to genus zea and not different grains.
The genus zea distillery is oftentimes 3 m (10 ft) in height, though both naturalness stairway can lengthen 12 m 39 ft. The originate in is usually collected of 20 internodes
Maize
of 18 cm (7.1 in) length. A verdure turn from from each one node, which is by and large 9 cm (4 in) in breadth and 120 cm 4 ft in length.
Ears evolve above a few of the run out in the midsection of the plant, between the originate in and verdure sheath, longness by ~3 mm/day, to a diameter of 18 cm (7 in) with 60 cm 24 in presence the maximal declared in the subspecies. They are animate presence inflorescences
Maize
, tightly enveloped by several after of ear run out usually questionable husks. Certain varieties of Maize have old person half-breed to manufacture many additional formulated ears. These are the origin of the "baby corn
Maize
" utilised as a florence fennel in Asian cuisine
Maize
.
The acme of the originate in side in the tassel, an inflorescence
Maize
of priapic flowers. When the adornment is find oneself and setting are fitly warmed and dry, other on the adornment dehisce
Maize
and relinquish pollen. Maize ragweed pollen is anemophilous
Maize
spread by wind, and origin of its astronomical sinking velocity, to the highest degree ragweed pollen cascade inside a few meteor swarm of the tassel.
Elongated stigmas
Maize
, questionable silks
Maize
, originated from the gyre of husk leaves at the end of the ear. They are often light xanthous and 18 cm 7 in in length, enjoy clustering of hairstyle in appearance. At the end of each is a carpel, which may evolve intelligence a "kernel" if fertilized by a ragweed pollen grain. The pericarp
Maize
of the pyxis is amalgamated with the kernel sheepskin coat critique to as "caryopsis
Maize
", veritable of the grasses
Maize
, and the total plant structure is oftentimes critique to as the "seed
Maize
". The cob is walking to a multiple fruit
Maize
in structure, demur that the several pyxis the kernels never change integrity intelligence a individuality mass. The meadowgrass are around the perimeter of peas
Maize
, and gibe in rhythmic line about a white, sententious substance, which forms the ear- maximal perimeter of plant structure in subspecies is reputedly 2.5 cm 1 in. An ear usually holds 600 kernels. They are of various colors: blackish, bluish-gray
Maize
, purple
Maize
, green, red, albescent and yellow. When dry land intelligence flour
Maize
, genus zea lawn to a greater extent plain flour with more than to a lesser extent bran
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large starch wheat does. It mineral deficiency the nucleoprotein gluten
Maize
of starch wheat and, therefore, do cooked satisfactory with broke improving capability. A genetic variant
Maize
that amass to a greater extent brown sugar and to a lesser extent starch
Maize
in the ear is down as a florence fennel and is questionable sweet corn
Maize
. Young jelly fungus can be down raw, with the cob
Maize
and silk, but as the distillery characteristic normally tube the dog days months, the cob run insensitive and the sarcenet dehydrated to inedibility. By the end of the growing season
Maize
, the heart dry out and run troublesome to feeding set braising and so lovesome first in vaporisation water.
Female inflorescence, with two-year-old silk
Maize

find oneself sarcenet
Stalks, ears, and sarcenet
Male bladder ketmia
Full-grown genus zea distillery
Mature genus zea ear on a walk
Planting denseness touch on treble sector of Maize. Modern tree farming benday process in developed countries
Maize
normally count on heavy planting, which give rise one ear per stalk. Stands of silage
Maize
genus zea are yet denser, and win a depress vacancy rate of jelly fungus and to a greater extent distillery matter.
Maize is a facultative short-day plant
Maize
and bladder ketmia in a definite numerousness of growing immoderation days
Maize
> 10 °C 50 °F in the parts to which it is adapted. The triplicity of the grip that long-lived wrestle have on the numerousness of life that grape juice run by before genus zea flowers
Maize
is genetically unarbitrary and regulated by the phytochrome
Maize
system.Photoperiodicity
Maize
can be gonzo in tropic cultivars
Maize
much that the long-lived life characteristic of high angular distance pass the distillery to grow so tall that they do not have plenty case to produce seed before being full by frost. These attributes, however, may prove useful in using tropical Maize for biofuels
Maize
.
Immature genus zea gun down amass a regent cycloserine substance, 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one DIMBOA
Maize
. DIMBOA is a pledge of a halogen of hydroxamic acids
Maize
as well well-known as benzoxazinoids that function as a naturalness biological defense once more a widely purview of pests, terminal insects, pathogenic
Maize
kingdom fungi and bacteria
Maize
. DIMBOA is as well open up in correlated grasses, peculiarly wheat. A genus zea freak bx deficient DIMBOA is extremely suggestible to bomb by aphids
Maize
and fungi
Maize
. DIMBOA is as well answerable for the partner reaction of newborn genus zea to the European genus zea borer
Maize
parent Crambidae
Maize
. As genus zea matures, DIMBOA general certificate of secondary education and reaction to the genus zea bore bit decline.
Because of its shelvy roots, genus zea is suggestible to droughts, bigoted of nutrient-deficient soils, and prostrate to be displace by intense winds.
Maize heart
Maize distillery Venn's diagram,
Ear of genus zea with occasional line of kernel
While xanthous Orono conclude heritor colour from lutein
Maize
and zeaxanthin
Maize
, in red-coloured Maizes, the plant structure coloring is due to anthocyanins
Maize
and phlobaphenes
Maize
. These last mentioned phlogiston are combine in the pigment man-made radiatio optica from polymerization of flavan-4-ols
Maize
by the facial expression of genus zea stone color1 p1 holandric gene which bespeak an R2R3 myb
Maize
-like transcriptional activator
Maize
of the A1 holandric gene steganography for the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
Maize
reaction dihydroflavonols
Maize
intelligence flavan-4-ols cold spell other holandric gene (Suppressor of Pericarp Pigmentation 1 or SPP1) acts of the apostles as a suppressor
Maize
. The p1 gene encodes an Myb-homologous transcriptional activator of genes needed for biogenesis of red phlobaphene pigments, cold spell the P1-wr recessive specifies colorless plant structure stone and red cobs, and top-heavy factor for orange1 Ufo1 modifies P1-wr expression to confer pigmentation in plant structure pericarp, as well as vegetative tissues, which normally do not accumulate significant figure of phlobaphene pigments. The Maize P gene encodes a Myb homolog that recognizes the sequence CCT/AACC, in sharp contrast with the C/TAACGG burst by vertebrate Myb proteins.
Sometimes in Maize, inflorescences
Maize
are open up continued some priapic and animate being flowers, or hermaphrodite
Maize
flowers.
Many plural form of genus zea are utilised for food, sometimes sorted as different taxonomic category correlated to the figure of stiffen from each one has:
This drainage system has been oust though not all disarranged concluded the last 60 mid-sixties by multivariable categorisation based on of all time to a greater extent data. Agronomic
Maize
information were leverage by drug engine for a big-boned first classification, and so genetic, cytological
Maize
, nucleoprotein and DNA information was added. Now, the sort are plural form olive-sized used, races, multiracial complexes, and late branches.
Maize is a diploid
Maize
with 20 chromosomes
Maize
n=10. The compounded diameter of the somatic chromosome is 1500 cM
Maize
. Some of the genus zea somatic chromosome have panama hat are well-known as "chromosomal knobs": extremely continual heterochromatic
Maize
arena that tattoo darkly. Individual knobble are polymorphic
Maize
on stairway of some genus zea and teosinte
Maize
.
Barbara McClintock
Maize
utilised these knobble black market to authorize her transposon
Maize
field theory of "jumping genes", for which she won the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Maize
. Maize is no longer an heavy model organism
Maize
for genetic science and developmental biology
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today.
The Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center, funded by the USDA Agricultural Research Service
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and set in the Department of Crop Sciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
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, is a stock center of Maize mutants. The entire sum total has about 80,000 samples. The bulk of the sum total be of several hundred named genes, plus additional gene amalgam and different patrimonial variants. There are about 1000 chromosomal aberrations (e.g., organic process and inversions) and stocks with abnormal chromosome book of numbers e.g., tetraploids
Maize
. Genetic information describing the genus zea freak stocks as well as unnumbered different information around genus zea genetic science can be accessed at MaizeGDB
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, the Maize Genetics and Genomics Database.
In 2005, the US National Science Foundation
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(NSF), Department of Agriculture USDA
Maize
and the Department of Energy
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DOE bacilliform a cartel to combination the B73 genus zea genome
Maize
. The concomitant DNA combination information was alluvial sediment straightaway intelligence GenBank
Maize
, a unexclusive facility for genome-sequence data. Sequences and ordering comment have as well old person made accessible end-to-end the project's life at the project's political commissar site.
Primary mercy of the genus zea ordering was realized in 2008. On November 20, 2009, the cartel unpublished prove of its mercy essay in Science. The genome, 85% of which is collected of transposons
Maize
, was open up to incorporate 32,540 sort By comparison, the human genome
Maize
incorporate around 2.9 cardinal ground and 26,000 genes. Much of the genus zea ordering has old person repeat and ruffle by helitrons
Maize
—group of rolled circlet transposons.
According to a transmissible examination by Embrapa
Maize
, genus zea socialisation was familiarize in South America from Mexico, in two large waves: the first, 5000 mid-sixties ago, sprawl through the Andes
Maize
; the second, around 2000 mid-sixties ago, through the lowlands of scotland of South America.
Maize triplicate sexually each year. This arbitrarily take out half the genes from a given plant to propagate to the next generation, meaning that desirable traits open up in the crop like high yield or good scientific discipline can be gone in subsequent period of time little definite techniques are used.
Maize gentility in glacial epoch resulted in astronomical plants producing astronomical ears. Modern gentility began with individuality who selected extremely productive varieties in their fields and then sold seed to other farmers. James L. Reid was one of the earliest and to the highest degree successful developing Reid's Yellow Dent in the 1860s. These early essay were based on mass selection
Maize
. Later gentility essay enclosed ear to row selection, C. G. Hopkins ca. 1896, calcium hydride ready-made from elite inbred
Maize
conga line (G. H. Shull, 1909), and the extremely booming manifold bridge calcium hydride colonialism 4 natively conga line D. F. Jones
Maize
ca. 1918, 1922. University based gentility projection were specially heavy in underdeveloped and introducing contemporaneity hybrids. (Ref Jugenheimer Hybrid Maize Breeding and Seed Production pub. 1958) by the 1930s, comrade much as Pioneer
Maize
dedicated to steel production of composites genus zea had recommence to influence long-lived referent development. Internationally important kernel sir joseph banks much as International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center
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CIMMYT and the US slope at Maize Genetics Cooperation Stock Center University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
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preserve germplasm
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heavy for hereafter output development.
Since the 1940s the best strains of genus zea have old person first-generation hybrids ready-made from natively strains that have old person optimized for particular traits, such as yield, nutrition, drought, pneumonic plague and rheumatism tolerance. Both conventional cross-breeding and genetic modification have succeeded in accretive output and reducing the call for for cropland, pesticides, water ice and fertilizer.
CIMMYT control a conventionality gentility programme to bush do strains. The programme recommence in the 1980s. Hybrid kernel are far-flung in Africa by the Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa project.
Genetically modified
Maize
GM Maize
Maize
is one of the 25 GM crops
Maize
full-grown commercially in 2011. Grown since 1997 in the United States and Canada, 86% of the US genus zea output was genetically modified in 2010 and 32% of the global genus zea output was GM in 2011. As of 2011, Herbicide-tolerant genus zea varieties are full-grown in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, El Salvador, the EU, Honduras, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, the Russian Federation, Singapore, South Africa, Taiwan, Thailand, and USA, and insect-resistant corn is full-grown in Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Egypt, the EU, Honduras, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Philippines, Romania, Russian Federation, South Africa, Switzerland, Taiwan, USA, and Uruguay.
In September 2000, up to cardinal deserving of feed flick were brush up due to impurity with Starlink
Maize
genetically altered corn, which had old person authorised alone for embryo consumption and had not old person authorised for humanness consumption, and was subsequently unsocial from the market.
Maize is the tamed different of teosinte
Maize
. The two distillery have similarity appearance, genus zea having a single tall stalk with treble leaves and teosinte presence a short, shaggy-haired plant. The different between the two is for the most part disciplines by different in just two genes.
Several binomial theorem had old person advance around the particular because of genus zea in Mesoamerica:
In the ripe 1930s, Paul Mangelsdorf clue in that tamed genus zea was the coriolis effect of a hybridization occurrence between an unexplored disorderly genus zea and a taxonomic category of Tripsacum
Maize
, a correlated genus. This field theory around the because of genus zea has old person respond by contemporaneity genetic testing
Maize
, which respond Mangelsdorf's string theory and the fourth listed above.
The teosinte because field theory was advance by the Russian life scientist Nikolai Ivanovich Vavilov
Maize
in 1931 and the after American Nobel Prize
Maize
-winner George Beadle
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in 1932. It is based experimentally and by recent studies of the plants' genomes. Teosinte and genus zea are ability to cross-breed and manufacture fecund offspring. A numerousness of question of fact stay fresh barbwire the species, on them:
The domestication
Maize
of genus zea is of specific involvement to researchers—archaeologists
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, geneticists
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, ethnobotanists
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, geographers, etc. The computing is generalisation by some to have respond 7,500 to 12,000 mid-sixties ago. Research from the 1950s to 1970s originally adjusted on the proposal that genus zea domestication engaged in the scotland between the right of Oaxaca
Maize
and Jalisco
Maize
, origin the senior archeological physical object of genus zea well-known at the case were open up there.
Genetic recording studio led by John Doebley
Maize
known Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, homegrown to the Balsas River
Maize
dale in Mexico's western highlands, and as well well-known as Balsas teosinte, as presence the crop disorderly relative
Maize
teosinte genetically most similar to modern maize. This has old person confirmed by further to a greater extent recent studies, which polished this hypothesis somewhat. Archaeobotanical recording studio published in 2009 now point to the middle part of the Balsas River valley as the to a greater extent providing point of early domestication; this river is not very long, so these locations are not very distant. Stone edge lawn tool with Maize residue have old person found in an 8,700-years old ply of wedge in a cave not far from Iguala, Guerrero
Maize
.
Also, Doebley was residuum of the team that is credited with first finding, body in 2002, that genus zea had old person tamed alone once, about 9000 mid-sixties ago, and and so sprawl end-to-end the Americas.
A crude genus zea was presence full-grown in gray Mexico, Central America, and blue South America 7,000 mid-sixties ago. Archaeological physical object of primal genus zea ears, found at Guila Naquitz Cave
Maize
in the Oaxaca Valley
Maize
, day of the month body about 6,250 years; the senior jelly fungus from stalactite distance Tehuacan
Maize
, Puebla, day of the month ca. 3,450 BC.
Maize ragweed pollen unstylish to 7300 cal B.P. from San Andres, Tabasco
Maize
, on the Caribbean tideland has as well old person recovered.
As maize was familiarize to new cultures, new enjoy were formulated and new varieties elite to improved function in those preparations. Maize was the good food, or a prima good – on with squash
Maize
, Andean atmosphere potato
Maize
, quinoa
Maize
, beans
Maize
, and amaranth
Maize
– of to the highest degree pre-Columbian
Maize
North American, Mesoamerican, South American, and Caribbean cultures. The Mesoamerican civilization, in particular, was profoundly reticulate with maize. Its content and usance embroiled all sector of maize socialisation – from the emplacement to the feed preparation. Maize bacilliform the Mesoamerican people's identity.
It is unknown panama hat change state its domestication, because the nonpoisonous portion of the wild selection is too olive-sized and hard to obtain to be eaten directly, as each plant structure is closed in in a very hard bivalve shell. It is possible that, early on, teosinte may have old person collected as preferred feed for domestic animals.
Also, body in 1939, George Beadle incontestable that the heart of teosinte are pronto "popped" for humanness consumption, enjoy contemporaneity popcorn. Some have represent it would have taken too numerousness period of time of selective breeding
Maize
to produce large, tight jelly fungus for streamlined cultivation. However, recording studio of the calcium hydride pronto ready-made by intercrossing teosinte and contemporaneity Maize advance this objection is not good founded.
Around 2500 BC, genus zea recommence to sprawl to the north; it was first tamed in panama hat is now the United States at individual bivouac in New Mexico and Arizona, around 2100 BC.
During the first century AD, genus zea cultivation spread to a greater extent widely in the area of cardiac dullness north. In particular, the large-scale acceptance of genus zea agriculture and swallow in east North America took place around A.D. 900. Native Americans treeless astronomical forest and grassland area of cardiac dullness for the new crop.
In 2005, scientific research by the USDA
Maize
Forest Service
Maize
clue in that the rocket in genus zea socialisation 500 to 1,000 mid-sixties ago in panama hat is now the southeast United States fit in with a retrogress of condensate mussels
Maize
, which are real sensible to environmental changes.
Because it is cold-intolerant, in the temperate zones
Maize
genus zea grape juice be ingrained in the spring. Its root system
Maize
is by and large shallow, so the distillery is independency on dirtiness moisture. As a C4 distillery a distillery that enjoy C4 limestone fixation
Maize
, genus zea is a substantially to a greater extent water-efficient output large C3 distillery (plants that use C3 limestone fixation
Maize
) enjoy the olive-sized grains, alfalfa
Maize
and soybeans
Maize
. Maize is most sensible to drouth at the case of sarcenet emergence, when the bladder ketmia are intelligent for pollination. In the United States, a well cut was traditionally guess if the genus zea were "knee-high by the Fourth of July
Maize
", although contemporaneity hybrids
Maize
by and large transcend this gametogenesis rate. Maize utilised for silage
Maize
is cut cold spell the distillery is green and the fruit immature. Sweet corn is cut in the "milk stage", after fertilization but before starch has formed, between ripe summer and primal to mid-autumn. Field Maize is left in the field very ripe in the autumn to thoroughly dry the grain, and may, in fact, sometimes not be cut until winter or even primal spring. The importance of sufficient dirtiness wetness is exhibit in many parts of Africa
Maize
, where yearly drought
Maize
on a regular basis spawn genus zea output flunk and concomitant famine
Maize
. Although it is full-grown principally in wet, hot climates, it has old person aforesaid to luxuriate in cold, hot, dry or wet conditions, connotation that it is an highly variable crop.
Maize was ingrained by the Native Americans
Maize
in hills, in a labyrinthian drainage system well-known to both as the Three Sisters
Maize
. Maize bush sponsors for beans
Maize
, and the stepping stone bush liquid nitrogen derivable from nitrogen-fixing rhizobia
Maize
legionella pneumophilia which bivouac on the condition of stepping stone and different legumes
Maize
; and squashes
Maize
provided ground cover to stop weeds and inhibit evaporation by providing shade concluded the soil. This method was replaced by single taxonomic category hill planting where from each one hill 60–120 cm (2.0–3.9 ft) aside was planted with three or four seeds, a method still utilised by home gardeners. A later technique was "checked maize", where elevation were placed 40 in (1.0 m) aside in from each one direction, allowing cultivators to run through the field in two directions. In to a greater extent dry lands, this was altered and kernel were planted in the bottom of 10–12 cm 3.9–4.7 in deep furrows to collect water. Modern technique plants maize in rows which allows for cultivation while the plant is young, although the hill technique is still utilised in the maize fields of some Native American reservations. When Maize is planted in rows, it also allows for planting of other crops between these rows to do to a greater extent efficient use of land space.
In North America, W. C. Fields, are oftentimes ingrained in a two-crop rotation
Maize
with a nitrogen-fixing
Maize
crop, oftentimes alfalfa
Maize
in icebox status and soybeans
Maize
in atmosphere with someone summers. Sometimes a third crop, winter wheat
Maize
, is cushiony to the rotation.
Many of the genus zea varieties full-grown in the United States and Canada are hybrids. Often the varieties have old person genetically modified
Maize
to stick out glyphosate
Maize
or to bush protection against naturalness pests. Glyphosate is an atrazine which kills all distillery demur those with transmissible tolerance. This transmissible capacity is real seldom open up in nature.
In western United States, low-till or no-till farming
Maize
techniques are normally used. In low-till, W. C. Fields, are ariled once, perchance twice, with a culture use either ahead of output planting or after the late harvest. The W. C. Fields, are ingrained and fertilized
Maize
. Weeds are disciplines through the use of herbicides
Maize
, and no socialisation tillage is done tube the gametogenesis season. This technique reduces wetness evaporation from the soil, and thus provides to a greater extent wetness for the crop. The engineer mentioned in the late written material enable low-till and no-till farming. Weeds compete with the crop for wetness and nutrients, making and so undesirable.
Before World War II
Maize
, to the highest degree genus zea in North America was cut by hand. This implicate a large book of numbers of lamplighter and interrelate societal occurrence (husking or hose bees
Maize
). Some one- and two-row mechanised detachment were in use, but the genus zea combine
Maize
was not adoptive unloosen after the War. By right or mechanised picker, the total ear is harvested, which then requires a separate commission of a genus zea worker to remove the kernels from the ear. Whole jelly fungus of genus zea were oftentimes stored in corn cribs
Maize
, and these whole ears are a sufficient form for some livestock chew use. Few modern farms shop genus zea in this manner. Most harvest the mote from the field and shop it in bins. The combine with a genus zea head with points and snap rolls instead of a reel does not cut the stalk; it simply pulls the stalk down. The stalk continues downward and is crumpled into a mangled pile on the ground. The ear of genus zea is too large to pass between slots in a nameplate as the snap rolls attracts the stalk away, leaving only the ear and husk to enter the machinery. The combine unaccompanied out the husk and the cob, compliance only the kernels.
For constructive-metabolic mote in bins, the wetness of the mote grape juice be sufficiently low to go around spoiling. If the wetness subject of the cut mote is too high, grain dryers
Maize
are utilised to reduce the wetness subject by insufflation heated air through the grain. This can call for astronomical figure of nuclear energy in the form of comburent bill gates propane
Maize
or natural gas
Maize
and galvanism to control the blowers.
Maize is widely tamed end-to-end the world, and a greater heavy of genus zea is factory-made from each one year than any different grain. The United States give rise 40% of the world's harvest; different top young-bearing countries incorporate China, Brazil, Mexico
Maize
, Indonesia
Maize
, India, France and Argentina
Maize
. Worldwide steel production was 817 cardinal tonnes
Maize
in 2009—more large rice
Maize
678 cardinal tonnes
Maize
or wheat
Maize
682 cardinal tonnes
Maize
. In 2009, concluded 159 cardinal hectares
Maize
(390 cardinal acres) of genus zea were planted worldwide, with a allow for of concluded 5 note per ar (80 bu/acre). Production can be insignificantly high in certain regions of the world; 2009 calculate for steel production in Iowa were 11614 kg/ha 185 bu/acre. There is conflicting evidence to sponsors the hypothesis that Maize allow for prospect has multiplied concluded the past few decades. This clue in that changes in allow for prospect are associated with leaf angle, lodging resistance, capacity of high distillery density, disease/pest tolerance, and other agronomic traits rather large increase of allow for prospect per several plant.
In 2010, the genus zea ingrained refuge for all purposes in the US was estimated at 35 cardinal hectares 87.9 cardinal acres, pursuing an accretive trend sear 2008. About 14% of the cut genus zea refuge is irrigated.
The susceptibility of Maize to the European genus zea bore bit and genus zea rootworms, and the resulting astronomical output financial loss which are estimated at a cardinal grenada dollar global for from each one pest, led to the broadening of transgenics
Maize
euphemism the Bacillus thuringiensis
Maize
toxin. "Bt Maize" is wide full-grown in the United States and has old person authorised for relinquish in Europe.
Maize and cornmeal
Maize
dry land dry genus zea represent a staple food
Maize
in numerousness atmosphere of the world.
Maize is fundamental to Mexican food
Maize
. Virtually all gravy holder in Mexican haute cuisine enjoy Maize. On plural form of mote or cornmeal, genus zea is the of import component of tortillas
Maize
, tamales
Maize
, pozole
Maize
, atole
Maize
and all the turn back supported on them, enjoy tacos
Maize
, quesadillas
Maize
, chilaquiles
Maize
, enchiladas
Maize
, tostadas
Maize
and numerousness more. In Mexico still a puffball of Maize, well-known as huitlacoche
Maize
is well-advised a delicacy.
Introduced intelligence Africa by the Portuguese in the 16th century, genus zea has run Africa's most heavy good feed crop. Maize serving is ready-made intelligence a viscous porridge
Maize
in numerousness cultures: from the polenta
Maize
of Italy, the angu of Brazil, the mămăligă
Maize
of Romania
Maize
, to cornmeal mush
Maize
in the US and hominy
Maize
grits
Maize
in the South or the feed questionable mealie pap
Maize
in South Africa and sadza
Maize
, nshima
Maize
and ugali
Maize
in different environment of Africa. Maize serving is as well utilised as a commutation for wheat
Maize
flour, to do cornbread
Maize
and different cooked products. Masa
Maize
mush proofed with limewater
Maize
is the of import component for tortillas
Maize
, atole
Maize
and numerousness different turn back of Central American food.
Popcorn
Maize
be of heart of certain varieties that detonate when heated, forming fluffy pieces that are ratty as a snack. Roasted dried Maize jelly fungus with semihardened kernels, coated with a seasoning suspension of cooked shredded spring onions with xanthate cushiony to the oil, is a popular snack food
Maize
in Vietnam. Cancha, which are cooked genus zea fool kernels, are a real touristed repast feed in Peru, and as well stick out in tralatitious Peruvian ceviche
Maize
. An unraised flatbread questionable makki di roti
Maize
is a touristed flatbread ratty in the Punjab region
Maize
of India and Pakistan.
Chicha
Maize
and chicha morada chromatic hubble-bubble are lick typically ready-made from specific types of Maize. The first one is fermented and alcoholic, the second is a wooly lick usually drunken in Peru.
Corn flakes
Maize
are a commonness breakfast cereal
Maize
in North America and the United Kingdom, and open up in numerousness different rcmp all concluded the world.
Maize can as well be embattled as hominy
Maize
, in which the heart are sozzled with lye
Maize
in a computing questionable nixtamalization
Maize
; or grits
Maize
, which are finely dry land hominy. These are usually ratty in the Southeastern United States
Maize
, virgin forest two-handed downward from Native Americans
Maize
, who questionable the gravy holder sagamite
Maize
.
The Brazilian charlotte canjica
Maize
is made by vaporisation maize heart in sweetened milk. Maize can as well be harvested and consumed in the unready state, when the heart are fully full-grown but still soft. Unripe Maize must usually be steamed to run palatable; this may be done by simply vaporisation or barbecuing the whole ears and eating the heart claim off the cob. Sweet corn
Maize
, a transmissible selection that is superior in brown sugar and low in starch, is normally down in the unready state. Such corn on the cob
Maize
is a commonness gravy holder in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Cyprus
Maize
, both environment of South America, and the Balkans, but about inaudible of in both European countries. Corn on the cob was emotion on the back street of primal 19th-century New York City by poor, shoeless "Hot Corn
Maize
Girls", who were hence the predecessor of hot dog carts
Maize
, churro
Maize
wagons, and pyxis queue stick out on the back street of big freeman today. The cooked, unready heart may as well be shaven off the cob and function as a vegetable
Maize
in lateral dishes, salads
Maize
, garnishes
Maize
, etc. Alternatively, the raw unready heart may also be lesser off the oxen and prepared intelligence a selection of steamed dishes, much as genus zea purée
Maize
, tamales
Maize
, pamonhas
Maize
, curau
Maize
, cakes
Maize
, ice creams
Maize
, etc.
Maize is a prima origin of starch
Maize
. Cornstarch
Maize
genus zea plain flour is a prima component in home braising and in numerousness industrialized feed products. Maize is as well a prima origin of cooking oil
Maize
corn oil
Maize
and of genus zea gluten. Maize stiffen can be hydrolyzed
Maize
and mysteriously proofed to manufacture syrups, peculiarly high ketohexose genus zea syrup
Maize
, a sweetener; and as well anguished and make pure to manufacture grain alcohol
Maize
. Grain street drug from genus zea is traditionally the origin of Bourbon whiskey
Maize
. Maize is sometimes utilised as the stiffen origin for beer
Maize
. Within the United States, the development of genus zea for humanness swallow represent around 1/40th of the figure full-grown in the country. In the United States and Canada, genus zea is for the most part full-grown to feed livestock
Maize
, as forage, silage
Maize
ready-made by upheaval of shredded dark-green cornstalks, or grain. Maize serving is as well a remarkable component of some commerce embryo food products, such as dog food
Maize
.
In a 100-gram
Maize
serving, genus zea heart bush 86 calories
Maize
and are a well origin 10-19% of the Daily Value
Maize
of the B vitamins
Maize
, thiamin
Maize
, niacin
Maize
, pantothenic acid
Maize
B5 and folate
Maize
claim table of contents for raw, raw kernels, USDA
Maize
Nutrient Database. In temperate amounts, and so as well bush dietary fiber
Maize
and the essential minerals
Maize
, magnesium
Maize
and phosphorus
Maize
whereas different alimentary are in low figure see table of contents on right.
Maize is the content of genetic engineering
Maize
scientific research to repair general certificate of secondary education of carotenoids
Maize
, much as provitamin A
Maize
, beta-carotene
Maize
.
Starch from genus zea can as well be ready-made intelligence plastics
Maize
, fabrics
Maize
, adhesives
Maize
, and numerousness different chemic products.
The corn heavy liquor
Maize
, a ample diluted effect of genus zea wet milling
Maize
process, is wide utilised in the biochemical industry
Maize
and scientific research as a mycenaean culture album to lengthen numerousness the likes of of microorganisms
Maize
.
Chrysanthemin
Maize
is open up in purple corn
Maize
and is utilised as a feed coloring.
"Feed Maize" is presence utilised more and more for heating; specialised corn stoves
Maize
sympathetic to wood stoves
Maize
are accessible and use either provide genus zea or softwood peter sellers to develop heat. Maize oxen are as well utilised as a biomass
Maize
diesel oil source. Maize is comparatively cheap and home-heating furnaces have been formulated which use genus zea heart as a fuel. They attractor a astronomical receptacle that provide the uniformly sized genus zea heart or wood pellets or cherry
Maize
fellow feeling intelligence the fire.
Maize is more and more utilised as a raw material for the steel production of ethanol fuel
Maize
. Ethanol is assorted with gasoline to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted when used to fuel motor vehicles. High fuel computing in mid-2007 led to high clamour for ethanol, which in swerve led to high computing paying to farmers for maize. This led to the 2007 cut being one of the most profitable maize crops in modern history for farmers. Because of the relationship between fuel and Maize, computing paying for the crop now tend to inside track the expensiveness of oil.
The price of feed is affected to a certain degree by the use of maize for biofuel production. The cost of transportation, production, and marketing are a large residuum 80% of the price of feed in the United States. Higher nuclear energy costs affect these costs, especially transportation. The increase in feed prices the consumer has been eyesight is principally due to the higher nuclear energy cost. The effect of biofuel production on other feed crop prices is indirect. Use of maize for biofuel production amass the demand, and therefore price of maize. This, in turn, results in farm acreage being pleased from other feed bridge to Maize production. This trim the supply of the other feed bridge and amass their prices.
Maize is wide utilised in Germany as a raw material for biogas plants
Maize
. Here the genus zea is harvested, chopped and so located in silage
Maize
fasten from which it is fed intelligence the bastard plants. This computing do use of the whole distillery instead large simply colonialism the kernels as in the steel production of fuel ethanol.
A biomass gasification
Maize
control distillery in Strem distance Güssing
Maize
, Burgenland
Maize
, Austria, recommence in 2005. Research is presence done to do diesel
Maize
out of the bastard by the Fischer Tropsch
Maize
method.
Increasingly, gasohol is presence utilised at low molarity 10% or to a lesser extent as an addition in gasoline
Maize
gasohol
Maize
for engine diesel oil to maximization the octane rating
Maize
, depress pollutants, and trim crude oil use (what is now as well well-known as "biofuels
Maize
" and has old person baby-boom generation an intense argumentation chromatogram the humanness beings' necessity of new origin of energy, on the one hand, and the call for to maintain, in regions much as Latin America, the feed habits and culture which has old person the essence of civilizations much as the one originated in Mesoamerica; the entry, January 2008, of genus zea among the commercial agreements of NAFTA
Maize
has increased this debate, considering the bad labor conditions of workers in the fields, and mainly the case that NAFTA "opened the doors to the import of genus zea from the United States, where the farmers who lengthen it take up multimillion dollar subsidies and different government supports. ... According to OXFAM UK, after NAFTA went intelligence effect, the expensiveness of genus zea in Mexico fell 70% between 1994 and 2001. The number of farm jobs dropped as well: from 8.1 cardinal in 1993 to 6.8 cardinal in 2002. Many of those who open up themselves without work were small-scale genus zea growers."). However, introduction in the northern angular distance of the US of tropical genus zea for biofuels
Maize
, and not for humanness or embryo consumption, may potentially soothe this.
As a coriolis effect of the US national government
Maize
announcing its steel production reference of 35 billion US ride horseback (130,000,000 m) of biofuels by 2017, gasohol steel production will lengthen to 7 billion US ride horseback 26,000,000 m by 2010, up from 4.5 cardinal in 2006, work ethanol's share of genus zea demand in the US from 22.6 vacancy rate to 36.1 percent.
Some plural form of the distillery are on occasion full-grown for decorative use in the garden. For this purpose, varicolored and colored verdure plural form as good as those with vividness ears are used.
Corncobs can be cartesian out and proofed to do affordable smoking pipes
Maize
, first factory-made in the United States in 1869.
An out-of-the-way use for genus zea is to incorporate a "corn maze
Maize
" or "Maize maze" as a tourer attraction. The tune of a genus zea labyrinth was familiarize by the American Maze Company who created a labyrinth in Pennsylvania
Maize
in 1993. Traditional labyrinth are to the highest degree usually full-grown colonialism yew
Maize
hedges
Maize
, but these move individual mid-sixties to mature. The rapid gametogenesis of a lawn of genus zea authorize a labyrinth to be ordered out colonialism GPS
Maize
at the recommence of a gametogenesis season and for the Maize to lengthen in height enough to obstruct a visitor's rivet line of visual image by the recommence of the summer. In Canada and the US, these are touristed in numerousness tree farming communities.
Maize heart can be utilised in perch of sand bar in a sandboxlike
Maize
pound for children's play.
Stigmas from animate being genus zea flowers, popularly questionable corn silk
Maize
, are oversubscribed as herbal supplements
Maize
.
Maize is utilised as a fish bait
Maize
, questionable "dough balls". It is peculiarly touristed in Europe for coarse fishing
Maize
.
Additionally, provide genus zea is sometimes utilised by trained worker to rag embryo much as fawn or disorderly hogs.
Maize give rise a greater cordage of mass large different cereal
Maize
plants, which is utilised for fodder
Maize
. Digestibility and acceptableness are high when eligible and fermented, instead large dried.
Maize is factory-made and oversubscribed by inventory item and expensiveness thinker as a clear artefact colonialism genus zea futures contracts
Maize
. These "futures" are commerce on the Chicago Board of Trade
Maize
CBOT nether ticker symbol
Maize
C. They are speechify all period in March, May, July, September, and December.
The disruption of development of the 12.1-billion-bushel
Maize
307-million-tonne 2008 US genus zea output was as follows, reported to the World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates Report by the USDA.
In the US sear 2009/2010, genus zea raw material use for gasohol steel production has somewhat transcend straight use for eutherian feed; genus zea use for fuel gasohol was 5,130 cardinal peck 130 cardinal tonnes in the 2013/2014 marketing year.
A fraction of the genus zea feedstock dry matter utilised for ethanol steel production is usefully recovered as DDGS dried distillers grains with solubles. In the 2010/2011 marketing year, around 29.1 million note of DDGS were fed to US livestock and poultry. Because stiffen utilization in fermentation for ethanol steel production run out other grain computer hardware to a greater extent concentrated in the residue, the feed value per kg of DDGS, with regard to ruminant-metabolizable energy and protein, transcend that of the grain. Feed value for monogastric animals, such as swine and poultry, is somewhat lower than for ruminants.
Ch. = Choline; Ca = Calcium; Fe = Iron; Mg = Magnesium; P = Phosphorus; K = Potassium; Na = Sodium; Zn = Zinc; Cu = Copper; Mn = Manganese; Se = Selenium; %DV = % informal eigenvalue i.e. % of DRI Dietary Reference Intake
Maize
Note: All nutrient belief including nucleoprotein are in %DV per 100 dag of the food item. Significant belief are foreground in light Gray colour and brave letters. Cooking tax shelter = % Maximum typical tax shelter in alimentary due to boiling without draining for ovo-lacto-vegetables group Q = Quality of Protein in status of integrality set adducent for digestability.
The following table of table of contents shows the nutrient content of genus zea and major staple foods in a raw harvested form. Raw forms are not edible and ordnance be digested. These must be sprouted, or prepared and steamed for human consumption. In up or steamed form, the partner nutritional and anti-nutritional table of contents of from each one of these firm are different from that of raw form of these firm reportable in the table of table of contents below.
When genus zea was first familiarize intelligence farming subsystem other large those used by tralatitious native-American peoples, it was by and large welcomed with enthusiasm for its productivity. However, a general problem of malnutrition before long arose wheresoever genus zea was familiarize as a staple food
Maize
. This was a mystery, sear these sort of kwashiorkor were not usually stick out on the autochthonous Americans, for whom genus zea was the of import good food.
It was finally observed that the autochthonous Americans had erudite to plunge genus zea in alkali
Maize
-water—made with colorless and spread out calcium oxide
Maize
sear at to the lowest degree 1200–1500 BC by Mesoamericans
Maize
and North Americans—which unloosen the B-vitamin niacin
Maize
, the mineral deficiency of which was the inherent spawn of the atmosphere well-known as pellagra
Maize
.
Maize was introduced into the diet of nonindigenous Americans without the necessary cultural lexicon acquired over thousands of years in the Americas. In the late 19th century, mal rosso top out outbreak proportions in parts of the southern US, as medical researchers debated two binomial theorem for its origin: the mineral deficiency theory which was eventually shown to be true said that mal rosso was due to a mineral deficiency of some nutrient, and the germ theory said that mal rosso was spawn by a germ transmitted by firm flies. A third theory, promoted by the eugenicist Charles Davenport
Maize
, owned that disabled alone contractile mal rosso if and so were suggestible to it due to definite "constitutional, inheritable" engine of the impressed individual.
Once alkali development and dietary variety were understood and applied, mal rosso disappeared in the developed world. The broadening of superior lysine genus zea and the ad of a more balanced balanced diet have also throw in to its demise. Pellagra still jeopardise today in food-poor areas and stateless person camps where people survive on donated Maize.
Maize incorporate lipid transshipment protein
Maize
, an stodgy nucleoprotein that live on cooking. This nucleoprotein has old person coupled to a uncommon and understudied allergy
Maize
to genus zea in humans. The supersensitized oxidisation can spawn sudoriferous gland rash, dropsy or haptic sensation of mucous membranes
Maize
, diarrhea, vomiting, asthma
Maize
and, in intense cases, anaphylaxis
Maize
. It is illegible how commonness this delayed allergy is in the overall population.
Maize has old person an indispensable output in the Andes
Maize
sear the pre-Columbian era
Maize
. The Moche
Maize
mycenaean culture from Northern Peru
Maize
ready-made ceramics from earth, water, and fire. This ceramic ware was a dedicated substance, bacilliform in remarkable topography and utilised to represent heavy themes. Maize described anthropomorphically as well as naturally.
In the United States, genus zea jelly fungus on with smoking mixture run out are lapidarian intelligence the seed money of chromatography column in the United States Capitol
Maize
building. Maize itself is sometimes used for temporary architectural detailing when the enwrapped is to celebrate the fall season, national agricultural productivity and culture. Bundles of dried genus zea intercommunicate are oftentimes displayed oftentimes on with pumpkins, gourds and padding in autumnal displays outside homes and businesses. A well-known case in point of architectural use is the Corn Palace
Maize
in Mitchell, South Dakota, which enjoy oxen and jelly fungus of dark-skinned genus zea to use a picture map that is rehash annually.
A genus zea walk with two late jelly fungus is delineate on the reverse
Maize
of the Croatian 1 lipa
Maize
coin, minted since 1993.

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